Blue Pencil no. 48—One Hundred Books Famous in Typography, Part 7 [Modern Masters] nos. 68–85

Note: When I began this dissection it was intended as a single post—even as it grew much longer than expected. However, I was forced to break it up into smaller chunks when I ran into an unexplained “failure error” when trying to save the draft one day. Rather than try to break up the dissection into equally sized posts based on word counts, I decided instead to make separate posts based on the divisions used in the Grolier Club exhibition for the one hundred books entries; and on divisions in the catalogue for the material that was not part of the exhibition (e.g. foreword, introduction, Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography, bibliography, etc.). Note that the divisions used in the exhibition itself (e.g. “The Golden Age” or Looking Back”) were abandoned for the catalogue.

Modern Masters
pp. 188–189
68*. Frederic W. Goudy (1865–1947)
Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1940. Octavo.
Provenance: Inscribed by the author to Florence E. Duvall; The Grolier Club.

• Set in University of California Old Style roman and italic

• Text is c.294 words
• Full title: Typologia: Studies in Type Design & Type Making with Comments on the Invention of Typography, the First Types, Legibility and Fine Printing
• The link above is a limited preview of the 1977 paperback version of Goudy’s book.
• There is a link to no. 58, but there should also be a link to no. 55.
• “Goudy Old Style” should be “Goudy Oldstyle” (see no. 58).
• “University of California Old Style” should be “University of California Oldstyle”.

“Frederic W. Goudy was one of the major American type designers of the twentieth century. He designed some of the most popular types of his time and place, including Goudy Old Style [sic] (see no. 58), Deepdene, Forum and Copperplate Gothic.” p. 188

Kelly’s list leaves out two crucial typefaces, Pabst Oldstyle (1902) and Kennerley (1911).

“The book is set in a new Goudy type, University of California Old Style [sic]. Almost two decades later, in 1959, the type, originally manufactured in a couple of sizes for handsetting, was produced as a Monotype composition face… [it] later enjoyed success in a digital version produced by ITC, simply named Californian.” p. 188

Kelly has scrambled the facts about the afterlife of University of California Oldstyle. The ITC reinterpretation of it was ITC Berkeley Oldstyle, a design produced for photocomposition by Tony Stan in 1983. Californian was released as a digital font by Font Bureau in 1994.

“…he [Goudy] was proprietor of two presses (the Camelot Press in Chicago) and [the] Village Press in Massachusetts, later moving to New York)…” p. 188

The more complete and complex (but more accurate) chronology of Goudy’s activities as a printer is as follows: the Booklet Press with C. Lauren Hooper in Chicago 1894–1895; the Camelot Press (the renamed Booklet Press without Hooper) in Chicago 1895–1896; the Village Press in Park Ridge, Illinois 1903–1904, in Hingham, Massachusetts 1904–1906, in New York City 1906–1908, in Brooklyn 1910–1914, in Forest Hills (Queens) 1914–1924, and finally in Marlborough-on Hudson 1924–1939.

“They [the essays in the book] contain Goudy’s personal views on type design and typography. The section on the legibility of type has some interesting observations which are more universally applicable than many of Goudy’s more personal ideas about type design.” p. 188

It is unfortunate that Kelly does not quote (or at least summarize) some of Goudy’s views.

The book that Goudy designed and printed for the Grolier Club was Three Essays: I—Book Buying, II—Bookbinding, III—The office of Literature by Augustine Birrell (1924).

Further Reading p. 320
Frederic Goudy by D.J.R. Bruckner (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1990).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to Typologia. University of California Oldstyle became the basis for ITC Berkeley Oldstyle by Tony Stan (1983) and FB Californian by David Berlow (1994).

Title page. (The exhibition displayed pp. 68–69 where Goudy showed how a “new” typeface could be created by exchanging the capitals of one design for those of another design—e.g. Tory Text, Deepdene Text and Village Text.) The image has a cream flat added to it.
• An illustration of the inscription by Goudy to Florence Duvall is on p. 188.

Sample letters from five typefaces designed by Frederic W. Goudy (Deepdene Italic, Medieval, Village No. 2, Goudy Text, and Goethe). From Typologia: Studies in Type Design & Type Making with Comments on the Invention of Typography, the First Types, Legibility and Fine Printing by Frederic W. Goudy (Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press, 1940), p. 86. Image courtesy of Grendl Löfkvist.

pp. 190-191
69*. Stanley Morison (1889–1972)
A Tally of Types
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1953. Octavo.
Provenance: The Grolier Club.

• Set in various types. Each essay uses the typeface that is under discussion.

• Text is c.364 words
• The link is a limited preview of the 1973 revised edition of A Tally of Types edited by Brooke Crutchley
• There is a link to no.  51. There should be additional links to nos. 3, 6, 11, 20, 23, 26, 31, 32, and 46.

“…he [Morison] did not neglect original, modern type designers, overseeing  the production of Jan van Krimpen’s Lutetia, Eric Gill’s Perpetua, and Joseph Blumenthal’s Emerson type designs….” p. 190

“Each essay is set in the typeface under discussion…” p. 190

Kelly does not list the typefaces covered in A Tally of Types. They are: “Centaur roman, Arrighi italic, Bembo roman, Fairbank italic, Poliphilus roman, Blado italic, ‘Garamond’ roman, Granjon italic, Fournier roman and italic, Barbou roman, Baskerville roman and italic, Bell roman and italic, Goudy Modern roman and italic, Perpetua roman, Felicity italic, and Times New Roman and italic.” The 1973 revised edition, produced after Morison’s death, added Van Dijck, Ehrhardt, and Romulus to the list. Despite Kelly’s implication Lutetia and Emerson were not discussed by Morison.

Further Reading p. 321
A Legacy of Letters: An Assessment of Stanley Morison’s Monotype ‘Programme of Typographical Design’ by Mark Argetsinger (Skaneateles, New York: Michael & Winifred Bixler, 2008).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to A Tally of Types, although at least several could have been. At the top of the list would be Perpetua and Times New Roman, though the digital version of the former is weak.

Title page. (The exhibition showed pp. 36–37, part of the history of Poliphilus roman.) The original vermilion on the title page has been changed to a deep red.
• The title page is beautifully designed, but an interior page or spread would be more relevant to the content of the book. Some suggestions would be the story of the Fournier/Barbou mix-up, the development of Felicity (the italic companion to Perpetua), Alfred Fairbank and the search for a suitable italic companion for Bembo, or Morison’s dissatisfaction with Poliphilus.
• The online exhibition mistakenly shows the colophon page from Typologia (no. 68). Thus, the color of the Reynolds Stone wood engravings cannot be verified.

pp. 192-193
70*. Jan Tschichold
Designing Books
New York: Wittenborn, Schultz, Inc., [n.d. 1951]. Folio.
[There is no provenance given. The online exhibition says the lender is Jerry Kelly.]

• Set in Bembo.

• Text is c.266 words
• Full title: Designing Books: Planning a Book. A Typographer’s Composition Rules.
“Alan Lane” should be “Allen Lane” (1902–1970).

“Sometime in the 1930s, Tschichold made a radical about-face [from his advocacy of asymmetrical layouts in Die neue Typographie], becoming a resolutely traditional designer working almost exclusively in the classical style. The causes of this abrupt turnaround have been debated, but whatever the reason Tschichold’s work from the mid-thirties on eschews asymmetric principles, almost exclusively employing serif fonts in centered arrangements, with meticulous attention to the spacing and arrangement of all typographic elements.” p. 192

Tschichold’s aesthetic shift was not abrupt and it did not happen in the mid-1930s. In fact, in the text for no. 59 Die neue Typographie, Kelly says that the change occurred in the 1940s (see p. 168). Tschichold began to first modify his modernist views in 1935 with the publication of Typographische Gestaltung (translated into English in 1967 under the title Asymmetric Typography). But there are examples of classical typography by him in the 1920s, and there are examples of asymmetric typography (using sans serif type) by him as late as 1937. (For a rich trove of Tschichold’s work—calligraphy, type design, typography, book design, and graphic design—covering the years from 1919 to 1974 see the Deutsche National Bibliothek Katalog online.) For detailed discussions of Tschichold’s debate with Max Bill (1908–1994) in 1946 see Typography Papers 4 (2000) and Max Bill kontra Jan Tschichold: Der Typographiestreit der Moderne by Hans Rudolf Bosshard (Sulgen/Zurich [Switzerland]: Niggli Verlag AG, 2012).

“A noted (and frequently copied) aspect of Tschichold’s work during that period is the ‘Penguin Composition Rules,’ a succinct yet comprehensive statement of important (and often overlooked) details attended to in quality type composition. The Penguin rules began as a four-page leaflet, but they were reprinted in this volume, along with a valuable essay on planning a book, together with 58 color plates displaying Tschichold’s work from 1939 to 1949 in his classical style, without an asymmetric layout in sight!” p. 192

The justification for including this slender book in One Hundred Books Famous in Typography is its reprint of the Penguin Composition Rules (originally prepared in 1947). It is frustrating that Kelly has not quoted from them or summarized their gist. His final comment above is a subtle dig at Die neue Typographie by Tschichold (see no. 59).

Further Reading p. 321
Jan Tschichold: a life in typography by Ruari McLean (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1997).
• Suggested reading: Typographische Gestaltung by Jan Tschichold (Basel: Benno Schwabe & Co., 1935).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to Designing Books, though Sabon (p. 306) could have been, even though it was designed a decade and a half later. It represents Tschichold’s aesthetic change from a firm believer in only using sans serif types (see no. 59) to an adherent of a wide range of historical typefaces from Alte Schwabacher to Walbaum.

Single page (p. 29—showing the cover of Penguin’s Progress 5 [1947]) with a cream background added. (The exhibition showed pp. 28–29.) Penguin’s Progress 5 shows Tschichold’s prowess as a calligrapher, not his expertise as a typographer.
• The part of Designing Books that is most relevant to One Books Famous in Typography is the Penguin Composition Rules. Some of them should have been illustrated or a Penguin book where Tschichold’s typographic prowess is evident.

Cover of The Penguin Poets: The Centuries’ Poetry 5: Bridges to the Present Day compiled by Denys Kilham Roberts (Harmondsworth [England]: Penguin Books, 1949). From Designing Books by Jan Tschichold (New York: Wittenborn, Schultz, Inc., [1951]), plate 53. Note that Tschichold’s large margins have been trimmed in the illustration on p. 193 of One Hundred Books Famous in Typography.

pp. 194–195
71. Hermann Zapf (1918–2015)
Manuale Typographicum
Frankfurt am Main: D. Stempel, AG, 1954. Quarto.
Provenance: Leonard Bahr; Nancy Leo-Kelly.

• Set in over 40 different types.

• Text is c.308 words
• The online exhibition: “Provenance: From the library of Leonard Bahr, proprietor of the Adagio Press; later Nancy Leo-Kelly”. In the reproduction accompanying the note of provenance in the catalogue the inscription reads: “For Leonard F. Bahr with regards · Hermann Zapf / Detroit, April 23, 1966”.
• Leonard F. Bahr (1934–1993) was the proprietor of the Adagio Press in suburban Detroit from 1956 until his death. He was a great admirer of the typefaces of Hermann Zapf.
• Memphis was designed by Rudolf Wolf (Stempel 1929); Trajanus by Warren Chappell (Stempel 1939); and Balzac by Johannes Boehland (1951). For more on original Janson see nos. 72 and 85.
• There are links to nos. 26, 35, 70, and 92. There could be additional ones to nos. 14, 23, 29, and 71A.

“Hermann Zapf has been called ‘the greatest type designer of our time, and very possibly the greatest type designer of all time’ by the type historian Robert Bringhurst….” p. 194

This is obviously a subjective judgement, but I would suggest Robert Granjon, Pierre-Simon Fournier le jeune, Giambattista Bodoni, Adrian Frutiger, and possibly Robert Slimbach as other claimants for that title.

“…his own hugely popular fonts, including Aldus, Melior, Michelangelo, Palatino, Sistina and Virtuosa…” p. 194

Kelly does not provide any statistics for this claim, but the only typeface on his list which can be supported by sales numbers or by visibility/use over time is Palatino. Melior’s popularity has waxed and waned, and the others have been niche designs.

“…each arrangement fills a standard type area…. [There is] a wonderfully diverse assortment of typographic arrangements in this volume, some in centered and conservative arrangements, while others are decidedly modern and asymmetric, with the occasional line running sideways, and in several instances of overprinted letterforms.” p. 194

Despite the amazing variety of layouts in Manuale Typographicum, none of them employ white space as a design element. This is evident when seeing the pages as thumbnails which is possible on Peter Gabor’s website. Zapf’s asymmetry is not that of the young Tschichold nor that of his contemporaries in Switzerland such as Emil Ruder (1914–1970) and Josef Müller-Brockmann (1914–1996).

Further Reading p. 321
Hermann Zapf and the World He Designed by Jerry Kelly (New York: The Grolier Club, 2019).
• Suggested reading—Palatino: The Natural History of a Typeface by Robert Bringhurst (Boston: David R. Godine, Publisher, 2016).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
p. 300—Palatino Italic / Hermann Zapf 1951 / Stempel/Linotype / See no. 71
p. 301—Palatino / Hermann Zapf 1949 / Stempel/Linotype / See no. 71
p. 302—Palatino nova Greek / Hermann Zapf 1998 / Stempel/Linotype / See no. 71
• Given that Michelangelo and Sistina appear in the illustrations on p. 195, Palatino nova Titling and Palatino nova Imperial, their renamed digital versions respectively, could also have been shown.

Pages with quotations from Gustav Barthel (set in Palatino and Palatino Italic) and Bror Zachrisson (set in Michelangelo, Sistina, and Palatino). (The exhibition displayed a quotation by  S.H. de Roos set in Ariadne Initials, Palatino and Palatino Italic.)

pp. 196–199
71A*. Hermann Zapf (1918–2015)
Manuale Typographicum [II]
Frankfurt am Main: Z-Presse, 1968. Quarto.
[There is no provenance given.]

• Set in 100+ types, a mix of foundry, machine composition and photocomposition designs.

• Text is c.210 words
• This was not part of the online exhibition, but it was included in the actual exhibition.
• “George Tanzer” was formerly “Hans Tänzer”. (See Hermann Zaof and the World He Designed: A Biography by Jerry Kelly (n.p.: The Kelly-Winterton Press, 2019), p. 59.

“…[Manuale Typographicum II] uses types from all over the world…” p. 196

This is not true as a perusal of Zapf’s notes at the back of the book, which include the names of all of the typefaces used for each quotation, indicates they are all from European and American foundries.

Further Reading p. 321
ABC…XYZapf by Hermann Zapf (London: The Wynkyn de Worde Society, 1989).
• Suggested reading: Hermann Zapf and His Design Philosophy with an introduction by Carl Zahn (Chicago: Society of Typographic Arts, 1987.)

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
p. 302—Palatino nova Cyrillic / Hermann Zapf 1998 / Stempel/Linotype / See no. 71A

Three pages: quotations by Leonardo da Vinci (set in Dante and Dante italic), J.H. Mason (set in Delphin), and Albert Einstein (set in Optima). (The exhibition displayed four loose sheets from the book: the title page, the Einstein and Mason quotations, and a quotation from Bradbury Thompson set in Rosart Initials and Perpetua.)
• The Einstein quotation page illustration on p. 199 appears to have an added beige flat background.

pp. 200–201
72. Jack Stauffacher
Janson: A Definitive Collection
San Francisco: The Greenwood Press, 1954. Oblong quarto.
Provenance: The Grolier Club.

• Set in Stempel Janson with facsimiles of historic settings and specimens and contemporary settings of Stempel Janson in 8-point through 36-point. There are also settings of revivals of Janson, including Linotype Janson, Lanston Janson, Ehrhardt, and Van Dijck. (This listing is adapted from Michael Russem’s description of the book on the Katherine Small Gallery website.)

• Text is c.336 words
• There is a link to no. 85. There could also be one to no. 91.
• “Anton Janson” is Anton Janson (1620–1687), a typefounder about whom little is known. (See “Leipzig as a Centre of Type-Founding” by Stanley Morison reprinted in Selected Essays on the History of Letter-Forms in Manuscript and Print edited by David McKitterick (Cambridge et al: Cambridge University Press, 1981), vol. I, p. 134)
• “Wolfgang Tiessen” is Wolfgang Tiessen (1930–2017), a German private press printer.
• “For several years he [Stauffacher] taught printing at the Carnegie Mellon Institute in Pittsburgh….” Stauffacher taught at the Carnegie Institute of Technology (commonly called Carnegie Tech) from 1958 to 1963, several years before they merged with the Mellon Institute in 1967 to form what is today Carnegie-Mellon University.

Further Reading p. 321
Die Original-Janson-Antiqua. Zur Rehabilitierung des Nikolaus Kis. Porträt einer Schrift 1683–1983 by Horst Heiderhoff (Neu-Isenburg: Edition Tiessen, 1983).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to Janson: A Definitive Collection, which is odd since Stauffacher gave his blessing to Kis Antiqua Now by Hildegard Korger and Erhard Kaiser (2009).

The title page and a page showing 36 point Janson-Antiqua. (The exhibition displayed a spread with 30 point Janson-Kursiv on the recto.)
• This book is the guide for Kelly’s color scheme in One Hundred Books Famous in Typography and his use of historical vignettes to liven up the book’s design. See especially the title page.

Title page and “36 point Janson-Antiqua” from Janson: A Definitive Collection by Jack Stauffacher (San Francisco: The Greenwood Press, 1954) from One Hundred Books Famous in Typography (2021), p. 201.

pp. 202–203
73. Jan van Krimpen (1892–1958)
On Designing and Devising Type
New York: The Typophiles, 1957. Duodecimo.
Provenance: The Grolier Club.

• The jacket (shown on p. 203) is set in Romanée capitals.

• Text is c.448 words
• There are links to nos. 48, 58, 71, 77, and 99. There should be additional links to nos. 27, 48A, 68, 69, and 80.
• “Cristoffel van Dijck” should be “Christoffel van Dijck”
• “P.H. Radisch” should be “P.H. Rädisch”. For more on the life of Paul Hellmuth Rädisch (1891–1976) see A tot Z: Een autobiografie van P.H. Rädisch, staalstempelsnijder by P.H. Rädisch (Haarlem [Holland]: De Priegelboekerij, 1979).
• “Sem Hartz” is Samuel Louis “Sem” Hartz (1912–1995), punchcutter and stamp engraver.
• Bram de Does (1934–2015) was a book designer and type designer.

Further Reading p. 321
The Work of Jan van Krimpen by John Dreyfus (London: Sylvan Press, 1952).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to On Designing and Devising Type. DTL Haarlemmer by Frank Blokland (1998) would have been my first choice.

Cover design. (The exhibition showed pp. 36–37 with a display of Open Capitals.)
• An illustration of an interior page displaying one of van Krimpen’s more important typefaces (e.g. Lutetia, Romanée, or Spectrum) would have been more informative.

“Revised Lutetia” from On Designing and Devising Type by Jan van Krimpen (New York: The Typophiles, 1957), p. 28. The original Lutetia (Enschedé, 1925) was Van Krimpen’s first internationally successful typeface. In 1929, at the request of Porter Garnett of the Laboratory Press at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, he redesigned several characters as shown above.

pp. 204–205
74*. Sohn Pow-Key
Early Korean Typography
Seoul: Po Chin Chai Co. Ltd., 1987 [sic]. Folio.
[There is no provenance given. The online exhibition indicates the lender is Jerry Kelly.]

• Text is c.322 words
Online sources for this book list only a 1982 “new edition”. Based on several bibliographies the first edition must have been Early Korean Typography by Sohn Pow-Key (Seoul: Korean Library Science Research Institute, 1971). Depending upon whether Western or Korean conventions are used the author’s name sometimes appears as Pow-Key Sohn. Its text is in English, Korean, and Japanese.
• There are no links. At a bare minimum, there should be links to nos. 1, 2, and 42.

This is a confounding entry. It is the only book in the exhibition published outside of Europe and the United States; and it is the only book set in a non-Latin script other than two books in Greek (nos. 6 and 14). Its placement at this point in the catalogue makes no sense historically or chronologically. Furthermore, Kelly spends half of his text defending Gutenberg (e.g. “The Asian experiments do not mean that Gutenberg’s work was not groundbreaking and of the greatest importance in the history of civilization.”)

“In this extensive volume Professor Sohn Pow-Key traces the history and technique of Korean cast metal type, as well as clay and wooden type. He re-created the process himself to better understand how the technology of sand casting was applied to moveable type. A detailed explanation, illustrated by diagrams and photographs, forms about half of this substantial volume. That part is followed by 83 facsimiles of Korean printing from the twelfth century up to a work from 1895 printed from wood type.” p. 204

This sounds like an incredible book. It is a shame that Kelly does not go into further detail about Sohn Pow-Key’s findings. He does not explain sand casting (a practice that was used by European typefoundries and, according to some scholars, was used by Gutenberg himself), the impact of the differences in writing systems (beyond the size of character sets) on typemaking, or the impact (if any) of the creation of the Hangul alphabet by Sejong the Great (1397–1450). (It should be noted that the earliest examples of Korean metal type predated the Hangul alphabet.)

Further Reading p. 321
The Coming of the Book: The Impact of Printing, 1450-1800 by Lucien Febvre and Henri-Jean Martin (London: Verso, 1976).
• Suggested reading—The Invention of Printing in China and Its Spread Westward by Thomas F. Carter (New York: Columbia University Press, 1925).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to Early Korean Typography. Although I am unsure whether any current digital Hangul fonts are based on early examples, a showing of a highly praised one would have still been instructive.

An unidentified page. (The exhibition displayed a spread from Early Korean Typography—see my blog post for a photograph.)

pp. 206-207
75*. Geoffrey Dowding
Finer Points in the Spacing & Arrangement of Type
Clerkenwell, London: Wace & Company, 1954. Octavo.
[There is no provenance given. The online exhibition says the lender is Jerry Kelly.]

• Set in Plantin with short descenders. (The illustration on p. 207 shows p. 44 set in Ehrhardt; it is from the third edition [1966] as that illustration in the 1954 original edition appears on p. 35.)

• Text is c.252 words
• There is a link to no. 4. More importantly, there should be links to nos. 21, 37, 59, 67, 70, 92, 93, and 100.
• “J.H. Mason” is J.H. Mason (1875–1951), printer, printing educator, and scholar. For more on his life see J.H. Mason 1875–1951, Scholar-Printer by L.T. Owens, (London: Frederick Muller, 1976).
• The Cranach Press (Cranach-Presse) was a German private press in the English Arts & Crafts manner (1913–1931). (See The Book as a Work of Art, The Cranach Press of Count Harry Kessler edited by John Dieter Brinks (Berlin and Williamstown, Massachusetts: Triton Verlag and the Chapin Library, Williams College, 2005).

“Other of his [Dowding’s] recommendations, such as single quotation marks instead of double and more extensive use of ampersands in standard type composition, have not been widely adopted.” p. 206

Dowding’s view on quotation marks may not have taken root in the United States, but it has been standard practice in British publishing for many decades. His idea of using ampersands in place of “and” to save space and maintain the even spacing of a typeset page was prefigured by Eric Gill in An Essay on Typography (see no. 67). It was common practice for centuries (see the works of Gutenberg, Fust and Schoeffer, Jenson, Colines, Tory, Vascosan, Granjon, Plantin, Fertel, and Fournier shown in the catalogue) and was briefly revived by William Morris and other early private presses.

Finer Points in the Spacing & Arrangement of Type has gone into four editions, most recently in a paperback edition from Hartley & Marks, Publishers.” p. 206

The Hartley & Marks paperback edition of Dowding’s treatise was published in 1995, based on the 1966 revised text. (Worldcat list no editions since then.) A critical point about editions of the book that Kelly omits is that those overseen by Dowding were set in hot-metal faces, while the revised paperback edition was entirely reset in a digital version of Ehrhardt. Although most of Dowdings prescriptions (other than the excessive use of the ampersand) are still applicable in today’s world of digital typesetting, several of the problems endemic to metal typesetting that he sought to solve no longer exist. It would be good to have an annotated facsimile of his original 1954 edition supplemented by digital resettings of those problems.

Further Reading p. 321
A Grammar of Typography by Mark Argetsinger (Boston: David R. Godine, Publisher, 2020).
• Suggested readings—Typographic norms by Anthony Froshaug (Birmingham [England]: Kynoch Press, 1964); Typography by Aaron Burns (New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp., 1961); and Typography: A Manual of Design by Emil Ruder (New York: Visual Communications Books, Hastings House, Publishers, Inc., 1967) [English edition].

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to Dowding’s essay which is reasonable.

Single page (p. 44 of the third edition of Dowding [1966]) with an added tonal flat for the background. (The exhibition displayed pp. 44–45.) Note the text at the bottom of the image that says the examples were set in type for the first and second editions but replaced by an enlarged line engraving for this edition (i.e. the third edition of 1966).

P. 44 from Finer Points in the Spacing & Arrangement of Type by Geoffrey Dowding (Clerkenwell, London: Wace & Company Ltd., 1966), 3rd ed. From One Hundred Books Famous in Typography (2021), p. 207.

“The Setting of text Matter” from Finer Points in the Spacing & Arrangement of Type by Geoffrey Dowding (London: Wace & Co., 1954), p. 35.

pp. 208–209
76. John Carter, Frank Francis, Stanley Morison, Percy H. Muir et al.
Printing and the Mind of Man
London: F.W. Bridges & Sons and the Association of British Manufacturers of Printers’ Machinery, 1963. Octavo.
Provenance: John Hayward; The Grolier Club.

• Set in Bembo. The cover is set in Perpetua designed by Eric Gill for the Monotype Corporation. The title was engraved in wood by Reynolds Stone (1909–1979) (see also no. 69).

• Text is c.364 words
• Full title: Printing and the Mind of Man: Catalogue of the Exhibitions at the British Museum and at Earls Court, London 16–27 July 1963
• There are no links. There could be ones to nos. 53, 57, and 81—and others.
• “John Carter” is John Carter (1905–1975), bibliographer, book-collector, antiquarian bookseller, and more.
• “Frank Francis” is Frank Francis (1901–1988), described as “the most important figure in the history of the British Museum Department of Printed Books in the twentieth century.”
• Percy H. Muir” is Percy H. Muir (1894–1979), prominent twentieth-century antiquarian bookseller, book collector, and bibliographer.
• “the Rotofoto system“, invented by George Westover (1886–1959), was first demonstrated in 1948.
• “the book on Fra Luca Pacioli published by the Grolier Club in 1933” refers to Fra Luca De Pacioli of Borgo S. Sepolcro by Stanley Morison, an English translation of the section on constructing Roman capital letters in Pacioli’s Divina proportione (Venice 1509). It was designed by Bruce Rogers.

“…the world situation in 1940 was not conducive to the British celebrating the achievements of the German development of printing from moveable type. An exhibition was held at the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, scheduled to run from 6 May to 23 June 1940. Due to escalating hostilities the books were only exhibited for about two weeks.” p. 208

Kelly’s description of why England failed to fully celebrate the Gutenberg quincentenary in 1940 is a masterpiece of understatement. Here is a summary of the political and military events occurring as the Fitzwilliam Museum exhibition was being planned, inaugurated, and then abruptly truncated: September 3, 1939 Britain and France declare war on Germany; April/May 1940 Hitler invades Denmark and Norway; May 13, 1940 “Blitzkrieg” against Belgium and the Netherlands; May 13, 1940 Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain resigns; May 26–June 4, 1940 Operation Dynamo, the evacuation of Allied troops at from the beaches and harbor of Dunkirk in the north of France; June 11, 1940 Italy enters the war on the side of the Axis powers; June 22, 1940 France signs armistice with Germany; and July 10–October 31, 1940 the “Battle of Britain”, the air battle between the Luftwaffe and the Royal Air Force. The period of large-scale night bombing attacks by the Luftwaffe on industrial cities and London known as the Blitz began 7 September 1940.

“It would be almost a quarter century later, in 1963, that a couple of larger-scale exhibitions celebrating Gutenberg’s invention [of moveable type] would be mounted in London.” p. 208

As Kelly indicates there were two exhibitions, a large one devoted to a “selection of  books printed over the course of five hundred years which influenced the thunking and activities of mankind” and a smaller one focused on printing machinery and related items (the annual International Printing Machinery and Allied Trades Exhibition known as IPEX). Ironically, the exhibitions were as short in duration as the aborted 1940 exhibition since they were coordinated with IPEX’s normal length of time.

Further Reading p. 321
“Recollections of the Gutenberg Quincentenary celebration in Cambridge 1940 and Its Connextion [sic] with Printing and the Mind of Man” by John Dreyfus in Printing Historical Society Bulletin, nos. 28–29 (Autumn/Winter), 1990. (see no. 94.)

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to the Printing and the Mind of Man catalogue which makes sense as no single typeface could represent the exhibition’s wide-ranging contents.

The cover.
• The Houghton Library (Harvard University) blog lists websites that have digitized copies of books included in the exhibition.

pp. 210–211
77. Georg Trump (1896–1985)
Vita Activa
Munich: Typographische Gesellschaft München, 1967. Folio.
Provenance: Inscribed by Georg Trump to the curator [Jerry Kelly].

• Set in Trump-Mediäval normal and kursiv designed by Georg Trump for Schriftgießerei C.E. Weber.

• Text is c.322 words
• Full title: Vita Activa: Georg Trump Bilder, Schriften & Schriftbilder
• The book contains contributions from Wilhelm Waetzoldt, H.E. Friedrich, Heinz Peters, and others.
• There are links to nos. 59 and 62. There should also be links to nos. 68, 73, and 99.
• “the Berthold foundry” is H. Berthold AG.

“Trump’s first type design, produced by the Berthold foundry in Berlin in 1931, was a slab serif design called City. It quickly became a mainstay of Bauhaus typography: Jan Tschichold used it on the title page of Typographische Gestaltung (1935), one of his most important publications, and it was selected by Paul Rand as the basis for for the IBM logo. His next type was a blackletter (textura) design, Trump-Deutsch….” p. 210

Either this is poor writing or Kelly is describing the work of Tschichold and Rand as “Bauhaus typography”, which would be ironic since in the entry for Die neue Typographie (no. 59) he took great pains to separate Tschichold from the Bauhaus (p. 168). City, the design of which is usually dated 1930, was not a mainstay of Bauhaus typography. There is no mention of it in Das A und O des Bauhauses: Bauhauswerbung, Shriftbilder, Druksachen, Ausstellungsdesign edited by Ute Brüning (Leipzig: Edition Leipzig and Berlin: Bauhaus-Archiv, 1995. But it was a typeface that Tschichold used often in the early 1930s.

How does Kelly reconcile the design of Trump-Deutsch (1935) with his earlier statement that, “A trip to Italy in 1926 greatly influenced Trump’s work, leading him to move away from blackletter typography.” Was Trump-Deutsch a response to the Nazi party’s ascension to power? (In this regard see the specimen Deutsche Schriften der Schriftgiesserei (Probe Nr. 279) Trump designed for H. Berthold AG in 1933 or 1934.)

Further Reading p. 321
Georg Trump: Maler, Schriftkünstler, Grafiker edited by Philip Luidl (Munich: Münchner Stadtmuseum and Typographische Gesellschaft München, 1981).
• Suggested reading—F. H. Ernst Schneidler: Schriftentwerfer–Lehrer–Kalligraph by Max Caflisch, Albert Kapr, Eckehart SchumacherGebler, Antonia Weiss, and Hans Peter Willberg (Munich: SchumacherGebler, 2002).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
p. 307—Trump Mediäval / Georg Trump 1954 / Weber/Linotype / See no. 77

Single page (p. 61 with a list of Georg Trump’s typefaces). (The exhibition displayed the spread pp. 66–67 devoted to Trump Mediäval.)

pp. 212–213
78*. Stanley Morison (1889–1967)
The Fell Types
Oxford: At the Clarendon Press, 1967. Folio.
Provenance: The Grolier Club.

• Set in Bembo roman and italic.

• Text is c.280 words
• The correct and full title is: John Fell: The University Press and the ‘Fell’ Types: the punches and matrices designed for printing in the Greek, Latin, English, and Oriental languages bequeathed in 1686 to the University of Oxford by John Fell, D. D., Delegate of the Press, Dean of Christ Church, Vice-Chancellor of the University, and Bishop of Oxford
• There are links to nos. 48A and 79. It should also be linked to nos. 30, 30A, 45, 48, 61, 72, and 83.
• “Cristoffel van Dijck” should be “Christoffel van Dijck”
• “Hautlin” should be “Haultin”

Further Reading p. 321
Stanley Morison by Nicolas Barker (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1972); and
Stanley Morison & ‘John Fell’: The Story of the Writing and Printing of Stanley Morison’s Book John Fell, the University Press and the ‘Fell’ Types by Martyn Ould (Bath: The Old School Press, 2003).
• Suggested reading—The Types Bought in Holland by John Fell and Thomas Yate for the University of Oxford 1670–1672 by H.G. Carter with A Specimen of Types Cast at the University Press, Oxford in Matrices Believed to Have Been Bought at Leiden in 1637, and a broadside A Specimen of the Types Attributed to Peter de Walpergen Cut for the Univeristy of Oxford 1676–1702. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1957–1959).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to Morison’s history of the Fell types, but an obvious option would be the IM Fell series by Igino Marini (200–2007).

The title page. A cream tonal flat has been added.
• An interior page showing some of the Fell types would have been vastly more informative (e.g. p. 151 showing Canon, or 3-Line Pica Roman). The online exhibition shows a black-and-white version of the title page.

pp. 214–215
79. Harry Carter (1901–1982)
A View of Early Typography
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1969. Octavo.
Provenance: The Grolier Club.

• Set in Monotype Bembo roman and italic

• Text is c.448 words
• Full title: A View of Early Typography: up to about 1600
• There are no links, though there should be to nos. 17, 53, 57, 66, 66A, 81, and 97.
Paul Needham (b. 1943) has worked at the Huntington Library, Morgan Library, and Scheide Library at Princeton University.
James Mosley (b. 1935), the librarian at the St. Bride Institute for forty-two years and a long-time lecturer in the Department of Typography and Graphic Communication at the University of Reading, is one of the foremost typographic historians alive. It is an embarrassment that none of his writings were included in this exhibition or even in the bibliography to this book. However, his reading list for his course “Type, lettering, and calligraphy, 1450–1830” at the University of Virginia Rare Book School does merit a mention in a note on p. 214.

Further Reading p. 321
Harry Carter: Typographer by Martyn Thomas, John A. Lane and Anne Rogers (Bath: The Old School Press, 2005).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to A View of Early Typography. One suggestion would be Adobe Jenson by Robert Slimbach (1996).

Single page (Fig. 69 showing specimens of the work of Guillaume I Le Bé located between pp. 96 and 97). (The exhibition displayed a different spread, but I have lost my notes identifying the exact pages.)
• The large Le Bé type shown is one of the influences on Jan Tschichold’s Sabon typeface (see p. 306).

pp. 216–217
80. Giovanni Mardersteig (1892–1977)
Pietro Bembo / De Aetna
Verona: Editiones Officina Bodoni, 1969. Octavo.
[There is no provenance given. The online exhibition says the lender is Jerry Kelly.]

• Set in foundry Griffo (designed by Giovanni Mardersteig) and Monotype Bembo

• Text is c.280 words
• The full (and more accurate) author and title of the English edition (which is the one under discussion) is: Petri Bembi / De Aetna Liber & Pietro Bembo / On Etna
• There is a link to no. 6 (which it should have followed).
• The Officina Bodoni operated from 1922 until 1977 in Verona and since Mardersteig’s death his son Martino (b. 1941) has occasionally used the imprint.
• “Charles Malin” is Charles Malin (1883–1955), French punchcutter

Further Reading p. 321
The Officina Bodoni by Hans Schmoller (Verona: Edizioni Valdonega, 1980).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to Mardersteig’s edition of De Aetna. A logical one would be Dante VAL, digitized from the original foundry version of Dante by the Stamperia Valdonega (run by Martino Mardersteig).

The title page. (The exhibition displayed pp. 38–39.)
• A text page would have been invaluable as a comparison to a page from the original book by Aldus Manutius (p. 39).

pp. 218–219
81. Joseph Blumenthal (1897–1990)
The Art of the Printed Book
New York: The Pierpont Morgan Library, 1972. Quarto.
Provenance: Joseph Blumenthal; the curator [Jerry Kelly].

• The title page is set in Perpetua Titling designed by Eric Gill and Bulmer originally cut by William Martin (see no. 31). The text is set in Monotype Baskerville.

• Text is c.315 words
• The online exhibition: “Provenance: The author Joseph Blumenthal’s copy of the first printing; later Jerry Kelly”.
• The full title: The Art of the Printed Book, 1455–1955: Masterpieces of Typography through Five Centuries from the Collections of the Pierpont Morgan Library, New York
• There is a link to no. 80, but there should be links to nos. 57 and 57A.
Charles Ryskamp (1928–2010) was Director of The Pierpont Morgan Library from 1969 to 1986.

“With its lucid text and illuminating plates, Art of the Printed Book has provided an excellent introduction into the arts of typography, printing and book design for generations.” p. 218

It is hard to see why Blumenthal’s book is included in One Hundred Books Famous in Typography since most of its contents duplicate Stanley Morison’s Four Centuries of Fine Printing (no. 57) coupled with its companion Modern Fine Printing (no. 57A). Where Morison’s survey stopped in 1925, Blumenthal’s runs another thirty years. A broader survey of fine printing in the 20th century is A Century for the Century: Fine Printing 1900–1999 by Martin Hutner and Kelly himself.

Further Reading p. 322
Typographic Years by Joseph Blumenthal (New York: Frederic C. Beil, 1983). [The full title is Typographic Years: A Printer’s Journey Through a Half-Century, 1925–1975]
• Suggested reading—A Century for the Century: Fine Printed Books 1900–1999 by Martin Hutner and Jerry Kelly (New York: The Grolier Club, 1999).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to The Art of the Printed Book. Kelly could have included his own digitization (c.2007) of Blumenthal’s Emerson (1935).

The title page.

pp. 220–221
82. International Typeface Corporation
The ITC Typeface Collection
New York: International Typeface Corporation, 1980. Oblong Folio.
Provenance: Aaron Burns; the curator [Jerry Kelly].

• The jacket is set in ITC Benguiat designed by Ed Benguiat in 1977.

• Text is c.434 words
• The online exhibition: “Provenance: From the library of Aaron Burns, founder of ITC; later Jerry Kelly”.
• There are no links. There should be links to nos. 55, 58, 82A, 95, and 99.

“In the metal type era, the manufacture of type was an extremely specialized process, involving highly-skilled craftsmen together with considerable equipment and expense. All of that changed practically overnight, with the proliferation of phototype technology. With phototype almost anyone with a process camera, a little know-how, and images of letterforms could make a type font. The greater ease of manufacture led to rampant pirating of typeface designs: it was very easy for and all too tempting to photograph somebody else’s type design and use it on your system. No longer did punches need to be cut and struck into matrices with phenomenal precision., to then be cast from molten metal using heavy machinery. The problem with type piracy was so pronounced in the phototype era that some type designers refused to expend their time and skills on typefaces for commercial release, only to see their work stolen almost immediately.” p. 220

This is a commonly repeated story that, despite its grains of truth, paints a distorted picture of the history of copying type which long predated the invention of phototype. Hendrik Vervliet told Riccardo Olocco that he believed it was already happening in the 1470s. The process was a simple one. Olocco describes it thus, “The punchcutter makes a smoke proof of each type he wants to copy, cut and pastes it on a blank punch, and traces the letter with a needle. The trace on the punch would be the guide for the work, and a skilled punchcutter could cut an accurate copy of the original model that leaves marks on the paper which might be undetectable from the original ones, even at macro reproductions.” (See “Imitation of Types” by Riccardo Olocco (2016), p. 1; and A new method of analysing printed type: the case of 15th-century Venetian romans by Riccardo Olocco (Reading, England: University of Reading MA thesis, 2019) pp. 263–267.) The earliest documented evidence of punchcutters using smoke proofs to copy typefaces is from 1704 in France. In the 1780s a contemporary observer remarked, “Mr. Caslon’s Type has since been copied by them [Joseph Fry & Sons] with such accuracy as not to be distinguishable from those of that celebrated Founder.” (Quoted in The Printer’s Grammar: Containing a Concise History of the Origin of Printing by John Smith (London: 1755), p. 271.) Although Olocco has found no evidence of direct copying in Venetian types of the 1470s and 1480s (contrary to Vervliet’s assertion), he has detected very close imitations of the types of Nicolas Jenson. He remarks, “…the number of craftsmen skilled cutting metal punches was definitely exceeding the number of craftsmen with a good understanding of letterforms.” (Olocco 2016, p. 3.) Close copies of typefaces persisted for centuries (see for instance Isaac Moore’s 1766 specimen sheet with types imitating those of John Baskerville or Fregi e maiuscole incise e fuse da Giambattista Bodoni della Stamperia Reale [Parma: 1771] with types that appear to be exact replicas of those of Pierre-Simon Fournier le jeune).

The problem of type piracy, as it became to be known, ballooned after the invention of electrotyping c. 1840. William E. Loy, in the first of his series of articles on type engravers, as distinct from punchcutters, explained the method, “The discovery of the electrotype process of multiplying matrices became an incentive to type founders to create new faces, resulting in a bewildering variety of slightly differing styles of types. This made it possible to bring out new styles at a moderate cost, as the pattern letters are cut on soft metal and electrotyped, instead of the old method of cutting everything on steel.” (See “Designers and Engravers of Type: Introduction” by William E. Loy in The Inland Printer vol. XX, no. 5 (February 1898), p. 621.) While electrotyping and engraving soft type metal led to the proliferation of designs that occurred after 1870, it also facilitated direct copying of typeface from other foundries. An anonymous writer accused English foundries of buying “from the foreign founder the small fount of type they wish to cast, and with which, by the aid of the galvanic battery, they produce their punches, and afterwards their matrices.” (See The Printing World vol. I, no. 5 [May 25, 1891], p. 133.) But the English were not the only founders guilty of such practices. There are accusations against various American firms as well as against French ones. As early as 1859 an International Association of Engravers and Typefounders was formed in Paris “to prohibit the recasting of their products by galvanic or any other process”. (See The Publishers’ Circular [July 1, 1859], p. 308.) Not only did established foundries steal from their rivals, but new foundries were formed “…whose only products were copies of the designs created by other foundries that had employed designers and punch cutters.” (See Recasting a Craft: St. Louis Typefounders Respond to Industrialization by Robert Mullen (Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, 2005), p. 54.)

[Left out of this brief account of type copying in the pre-phototype era is the widespread plagiarism that occurred among wood type manufacturers in the 19th century; and the post-World War II “recutting” of antique (e.g. 19th century) and 20th century types by American companies (e.g. The Baltimore Type & Composition Corporation [familiarly known as Baltotype], Castcraft/Type Founders of Chicago, and Typefounders, Inc. of Phoenix) using Monotype Supercasters and Thompson Type Casters.]*

Kelly is right in pointing out that the development of phototype made copying other’s types easier than before, but one still needed to make a substantial investment in equipment. When he says that all one needed was “a process camera, [and] a little know-how” he is thinking of type houses like Alphabets Inc., owned by lettering artist George Abrams (1920–2001), where both he and I worked (at different times). Abrams copied existing metal types, often redrawing them so that he could rename them Abrams Caslon or Abrams Baskerville, for instance. But the rampant piracy of the 1960s that precipitated the founding of the International Typeface Corporation was not from type houses or businesses like Solotype, run by Dan X. Solo (1928–2012), but from the new wave of companies that manufactured photo typesetting machines such as Lumitype/Photon, Varityper, Autologic, Itek, and Compugraphic. They were the true threat to the established type foundries and composing machine companies. And they required a much more significant investment of capital and technical know-how than a process camera (or Ludlow’s Brightype system).

The last part of Kelly’s comment—”The problem with type piracy was so pronounced in the phototype era that some type designers refused to expend their time and skills on typefaces for commercial release, only to see their work stolen almost immediately.”—is a thinly veiled reference to Hermann Zapf and the oft-quoted claim that he had stopped designing typefaces during the 1960s because of piracy of them by the new phototypesetting manufacturers. (See, for example, Hermann Zapf and the World he Designed: A Biography by Jerry Kelly (n.p.: The Kelly-Winterton Press, 2019), p. 190.)

Nearly a decade ago I tried to make a list (Blue Pencil no. 22—Zapfiana no. 3) of the numerous unauthorized copies of Hermann Zapf’s typefaces to provide a sense of the scope of what he was complaining about when he declared, “…I hold the world record for the most type designs copied without permission.” (This was part of a lecture at Baruch College, The City University of New York on April 15, 1977, See Hermann Zapf & His Design Philosophy: Selected Articles and Lectures on Calligraphy and Contemporary Developments in Type Design, with Illustrations and Biographical Notes, and a Complete [sic] List of His Typefaces (Chicago: Society of Typographic Arts, 1987), p. 85.) (In his biography of Zapf, Kelly says,”…Zapf’s types have been called the most pirated typeface [sic] of all time.”—with a footnote to the statement above by Zapf himself!)

Zapf may have been discouraged by the type situation in the 1960s, but it was not entirely due to the rise of phototypesetting and the increased pirating of existing metal typefaces. Nikolaus Weichselbaumer, author of Der Typograph Hermann Zapf: Eine Werkbiographie (Berlin and Boston: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co., 2015), has summed up his situation at that time: “That Zapf stopped designing fonts in the 1960s certainly has much to do with photo-typesetting, but not only with the ‘piracy’ it made possible. With the many competing typesetting systems and, very importantly, the very restrictive licensing policy of Stempel (and other established foundries) he didn’t see a way to get the same income as he had been able to get from [German] Linotype. There simply was no longer any foundry that could reach the same kind of market. Further, for Linotype and many others, fonts were less a product than a feature of the ever-new typesetting systems. Zapf had profited from a boom in type sales in the 1950s in West Germany when the entire country had to be equipped with enough Antiqua [roman] following the war and the rejection of Fraktur [blackletter], but that situation couldn’t last forever. Zapf was very focused on copyright and piracy and in hindsight he placed his decision to stop designing typefaces entirely on this. But, if you look at it, it also isn’t true that he stopped. He just reduced the number of typefaces he did for foundries. Between 1957, when he left Stempel, and 1973, when he started designing typefaces for ITC, he made Hunt Roman; several fonts for Hallmark; redesigned [Linofilm versions of] Palatino, Aldus, Melior and Optima for Mergenthaler Linotype; did Optima Greek, Venture, Medici, Orion, and Noris for Mergenthaler; and Zapf Civilité (which was not completed until 1983) for Paul Hayden Duensing. There are type designers who would not call that stopping.” (Email Nikolaus Weichselbaumer to Paul Shaw 8 June 2019) (It should be noted that in the various talks and lectures that Zapf gave on type design in the 1960s that have been gathered in The Design Philosophy of Hermann Zapf, the first one in which he mentions the financial harm he has suffered due to piracy is the 1977 Baruch College lecture cited above. Surprisingly, he makes no mention of this in his important lecture to the Copyright Office at the Library of Congress on October 15, 1974. See the printed text entitled “New Typeface Designs in the Shadow of Protection” in Hermann Zapf & His Design Philosophy, pp. 78–84.)

*There is much, much more that can be written on the history, methods, and morality of copying typefaces than can be reasonably fitted into this blog post. It is a subject that Zapf and ITC brought to the fore in the early 1970s and which gained renewed interest in the digital era with the advent first of PostScript, which eliminated the need for proprietary typesetting systems, and then programs such as FontStudio and Fontographer that enabled anyone to design fonts with the same technical quality as the large type companies. It is still a hot-button topic today. I hope to write more about this topic in a separate Blue Pencil post in the near future.

“Aaron Burns and a few of his colleagues recognized the problem, and also foresaw the greatly increased need for new typeface designs to feed the nascent photosetting machines.” p. 220

“Ed Rondthaler of Photo-Lettering, Inc., who would become Burns’ partner at ITC…” p. 220

Aaron Burns (1922–1991) was one of the three founders of the International Typeface Corporation along with Edward (Ed) Rondthaler (1905–2009), co-founder of Photo-Lettering Inc., and graphic designer Herb Lubalin (1918–1981). Kelly has left out Lubalin who, prior to the formation of ITC was a partner in Lubalin, Burns & Co., which billed itself as “The First Typo-Graphics Agency”. Each of these three men played a complementary role in ITC: Burns, with his two decades of experience working for type houses, understood the needs of the advertising and graphic design industries; Rondthaler, via Photo-Lettering, Inc., had the equipment and staff—notably Ed Benguiat (1927–2020)—to both design and produce new typefaces; and Lubalin and his staff at Lubalin, Smith & Carnase (established c.1967) supplied both new typefaces and oversaw the design of U&lc (see no. 82A), ITC’s prime promotional vehicle.

The typesetting companies, including many who were guilty of pirating typefaces, accepted ITC’s system because it was in their interests. ITC spared them the cost of pirating a popular design by providing authorized artwork. In doing so it helped erase the stigma of piracy attached to some companies. Via U&lc, ITC helped the typesetting companies in marketing not only ITC typefaces but also their own designs. And, most importantly, with many companies offering legitimate ITC typefaces, there was no incentive for customers to switch to a rival’s typesetting system. Burns’ concept was sheer genius!

Burns’ licensing system continued to work in the early years of desktop publishing as ITC made a lucrative deal to include its typefaces as part of the Apple Macintosh operating system. In 1986, ITC was acquired by Esselte Letraset. Fourteen years later, its ITC assets were sold to the Agfa Monotype Corporation. Today, ITC exists only as a Monotype Imaging brand.

Kelly’s text focuses entirely on ITC’s stance toward type piracy. This is an important aspect of the company’s origins and early years, but he says nothing about its typefaces, especially those created during its first decade and a half when its typefaces embodied a very specific aesthetic widely described as the “ITC style”. That style was characterized by a large x-height, which the company argued improved readability, and tight letterfit. From its inception in 1970 through the 1980s, ITC typefaces were hugely influential, not only in the United States, but in many other areas of the world. They tended to fall into three categories: 1. reinterpretations of typefaces originally created by American Type Founders (made with proper licensing) such as ITC Cheltenham, ITC Bookman, ITC Century, ITC Garamond, and ITC Souvenir; 2. original designs by Benguiat, Ray Baker (fl. 1950–1977), and other American lettering artists such as ITC Benguiat, ITC Barcelona, and ITC Newtext; and 3. typefaces by established European type designers, most notably Hermann Zapf (1918–2015) and Aldo Novarese (1920–1995).

Although all three partners in ITC played critical roles in its success, Burns was the key figure. ITC was unique in that it was a type company with no physical plant or proprietary equipment. Its lone asset was its intellectual property, the artwork for its typefaces. Thus, it had no large capital outlay and no huge workforce. But in order to sell its typefaces it needed partners, companies with manufacturing and sales capabilities. Burns could have struck exclusive deals with one or two leading companies such as Linotype and Monotype, but instead he opted to license ITC’s typefaces to as many companies as possible—as long as they abided by a contract that prohibited piracy of the designs and required them to maintain quality standards. ITC allowed each company to modify its artwork slightly in order to fit the requirements of their equipment. These licensees, referred to as ITC Subscribers, were listed in every issue of U&lc so that type houses, printers, and designers would know that their versions of an ITC typeface were legitimate

Further Reading p. 322
Life with Letters—as they turned photogenic by Edward Rondthaler (New York: Hastings House Publishers, 1981).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to The ITC Collection, even though numerous ones could be. My suggestion would be ITC Avant Garde by Herb Lubalin and Tom Carnase (1970), ITC Cheltenham by Tony Stan (1975), or ITC Souvenir by Ed Benguiat (1970). All three of them typified ITC’s philosophy and influence in the 1970s.

The cover.
• This illustration fails to adequately indicate the importance of ITC. An interior page from the book showing one of the iconic ITC types of the company’s first decade—e.g. ITC Cheltenham, ITC Garamond, ITC Souvenir, ITC Tiffany, or ITC Avant-Garde Gothic—is essential.
• The online exhibition shows the cover of the specimen book and the cover of U&lc (no. 82A).

pp. 222–223
82A. International Typeface Corporation
New York: International Typeface Corporation, 1973–1999. Folio; later issues quarto.
Provenance: Aaron Burns; later the curator [Jerry Kelly].

• Set in various ITC typefaces.

• Text is c.156 words
• The full title (or subtitle?) of U&lc was Upper and Lower Case, the International Journal of Typographics.
• Aaron Burns died in 1991. U&lc continued to be published until 1999. Is the provenance for the single issue shown, for a partial run, or a complete run of the magazine?
• There is a link to no. 98. There should also be links to nos. 46, 56, 82, 83, and 90.
• Graphic designer Herb Lubalin (1918–1981) was the first editor of U&lc. Upon his death, he was succeeded by Edward M. (Ed) Gottschall (fl. 1948–1989), then Margaret Richardson (1939–2019), and, at the end, John Berry (b. 1950).
• Bob Farber designed this issue. He was the periodical’s first art director following Lubalin’s death. Farber died after U&lc vol. 13, no. 3 (November 1986) was published.
• The shift to the smaller quarto size occurred with volume 24, number 4 in 1998.
• “Steven Heller” is Steven Heller (b. 1950), art director, design critic, design writer, and more.
• “Justin Howes” is Justin Howes (1963–2005), a historian of calligraphy and type as well as a typographer.
• “James Mosley” is James Mosley (b. 1935), former librarian at St. Bride Library, type historian, and educator.

Neither Howes nor Mosley was a major contributor to U&lc. In addition to Heller, the most prolific writers were Marion Muller (1922–2007), Rhonda Rubenstein, Margaret Richardson, Allan Haley, and Ed Gottschall.

“The texts covered a wide range of graphic arts, not just type design and typography Still, there was much of typographic value in the series, and with its large reader base U&lc did much to educate a wide population about various aspects of typography, while promoting ITC phototype fonts such as Korinna, Veljovic, Eras, Zapf Chancery and hundreds of others.” p. 222

Kelly’s description of U&lc does not do justice to the breadth and diversity of its contents. It also fails to explain how the publication fitted into ITC’s promotional strategy which is a crucial aspect of the company’s success. Lubalin, its first editor as well as it designer (with his staff), created U&lc as a magazine rivaling GraphisPrint and Communication Arts. It covered graphic design, design ephemera (e.g. erotic French postcards and 19th century flour sacks), graphic design history, advertising, type design, typography, calligraphy and lettering, and illustration. It included a feature promoting women in design and illustration, articles on the changing technology of type design and typesetting, editorials educating readers about copyright and piracy in type design and advocating legislative change, and a section entitled “What’s New from ITC” that announced the company’s latest typefaces. In fact, though, the entire magazine functioned as a giant type specimen with each article set in a different ITC typeface that was credited in tiny type at the end.

The typefaces are properly called ITC Korinna, ITC Veljovic, ITC Eras, and ITC Zapf Chancery. ITC was the first company to insist on its company name as an indivisible part of its typeface names, rather than just a convenient way for customers to distinguish designs with similar names (e.g. ATF Garamond vs. Monotype Garamond). This was both a branding strategy and part of its anti-piracy efforts.

“Subsequently other type companies, wishing to emulate the popularity of U&lc, issued their own tabloid-format promotional periodicals, such as Font & Function, from Adobe, but the imitators were short-lived.” p. 222

Other imitators besides Font & Function were Ligature (World Typeface Corporation), 26 (Agfa Compugraphic), and Baseline (issues nos. 5–18 published by Letraset with only 10–18 being tabloid-size). Emigre (Emigre Fonts) rivaled U&lc for longevity, existing from 1984 to 2005 with issues 1–32 published in tabloid format, and typographic influence. It is not entirely analogous to the other publications since it began as a cultural and literary magazine before shifting to a focus on contemporary graphic design, typography, type design, and design theory with issue no. 9. However, Emigre’s absence from this catalogue is a serious oversight.

Further Reading p. 322
U&lc: Influencing Design & Typography by John D. Berry (West New York, New Jersey: Mark Batty Publisher, 2005).
• Suggested reading—Herb Lubalin: American Graphic Designer 1918–1981 by ‎Adrian Shaughnessy · (London: Unit Editions, 2018).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to U&lc, but I would suggest ITC Cheltenham because its showing in U&lc vol. 5, no. 3 (September 1978) is a tour de force of typography.

Cover of U&lc vol. 13, no. 2 (August 1986). (The exhibition showed a spread from an unidentified 1985 issue promoting ITC Esprit by Jovica Veljovic.)
• This cover of U&lc is one of the dullest ever. More importantly, it is post-Lubalin. It does not reflect the typography of the periodical that was equally as influential as the ITC typefaces. Many, many other pages or spreads from U&lc could have been chosen to both show Lubalin’s typography and ITC’s typefaces. I would have chosen either part of the ITC Cheltenham specimen pages in U&lc vol. 5, no. 3 (September 1978), pp. 29–39 or the revised version of the “Come Home to Jazz” sequence in U&lc vol. 5, no. 1 (March 1978). The latter was originally designed by Lubalin—using metal type—for The Composing Room in 1960. A comparison of the two sets of layouts is instructive about the typographic possibilities that phototype opened up.
• ITC Esprit is an excellent typeface but it was designed at the moment when ITC began to broaden its collection. It does not represent the influential ITC aesthetic of the 1970s and early 1980s.

Specimen of ITC Cheltenham reproduced in U&lc vol. 5, no. 3 (September 1978), p. 29. Typography by the staff of Lubalin, Smith & Carnase.

Specimen of ITC Cheltenham reproduced in U&lc vol. 5, no. 3 (September 1978), p. 33. Typography by the staff of Lubalin, Smith & Carnase.

Specimen of ITC Cheltenham reproduced in U&lc vol. 5, no. 3 (September 1978), p. 35. Typography by the staff of Lubalin, Smith & Carnase.

pp. 224–225
83. John & Rosalind Randle (fl. 1955–present), editors
Andoversford, Gloucestershire [England]: The Whittington Press, 1981–present. Quarto.
Provenance: The Grolier Club.

• Set in a variety of types, but Caslon is the predominant one.

• Text is c.350 words
• Full title: Matrix: A Review for Printers & Bibliophiles
• There are links to nos. 43 and 56, but there should also be links to nos. 46, 82A, and 88.
Signature: A Quadrimestrial of Typography and Graphic Arts (1935–1954), thirty-three issues in two series.
Alphabet & Image: A Quarterly Magazine of Typography (1946–1948) was the post-World War II successor to Typography (1936–1939). Both were edited by Robert Harling (1910–2008).
Fine Print: The Review for the Arts of the Book (1975–1990) was founded by Sandra Kirshenbaum.
• The history of The Colophon can be confusing and Kelly has its various incarnations in the wrong order. It was The Colophon (1930–1935); The Colophon: New Series (1935–1938); and The Colophon: The New Graphic Series (1939–1940). Each of these versions was edited by Elmer Adler and printed by The Pynson Printers. In 1948 bookseller Philip Duschnes revived the title as The New Colophon: A Book Collectors’ Quarterly (1948–1950), printed by the Anthoensen Press.
The Penrose Annual began as The Process Year Book: Penrose’s Pictorial Annual, an Illustrated Review of the Graphic Arts in 1895. It went through several name changes before closing down in 1982.
Motif (1958–1967) was edited by Ruari McLean. James Shand (1905–1967) of the Shenval Press was the publisher. It was his fourth publication on typography and graphic arts and one could consider them as a unit, the previous three being Typography (1936–1939), Alphabet and Image (1946–1948) and Image (1949–1952).
Alphabet 1964: International Annual of Letterforms edited by R. S. Hutchings (1964). It lasted only one issue, but that issue is a must-have.
Baseline: International Typographics Magazine (1979–2018?) was begun by Letraset as its answer to U&lc. It was purchased by its art director Hans Dieter Reichardt and its editor Mike Daines in 1995.

Matrix is published (just about) annually, and therefore might be best described as a periodical. But being a substantial volume of 72 to 272 pages… [it] deserves consideration in a selection of Books (with a capital B).” p. 224

A similar defense of the inclusion of The Fleuron in One Hundred Books Famous in Typography was made on p. 156, but Kelly avoided the issue of periodical vs. book in his entries for The Monotype Recorder (no. 46) and U&lc (no. 82A), neither of which was ever casebound. Personally, I think periodicals should have been considered for inclusion in his survey—regardless of their size, frequency of publication, or method of binding—as long as their contents were of typographical importance. Kelly runs through a list of English-language ones which were rejected (e.g. Signature and Fine Print), but he ignores several others more worthy of consideration: Visible Language (especially in its original incarnation as The Journal of Typographic Research), Typographica (both old and new series), and Emigre, and Typography Papers. And he should have expanded his search to include non-English language journals, most notably Quaerendo in Holland, Typographische Monatsblätter in Switzerland, Typografia in Czechoslovakia, and Tupigrafia in Brazil. (Several of these periodicals have been anthologized in book form. See Fine Print on Type: The Best of Fine Print Magazine on Type and Typography edited by Charles Bigelow, Paul Hayden Duensing, and Linnea Gentry [San Francisco: Bedford Arts, 1989]; Emigre No.70: The Look Back Issue–Celebrating 25 Years in Graphic Design edited by Rudy VanderLans [Corte Madera, California: Gingko Press, 2009]; 30 Years of Swiss Typographic Discourse in the Typografische Monatsblätter: TM RSI SGM 1960–90 edited by François Rappo, Louise Paradis, and Roland Früh [Baden, Switzerland: Lars Müller, 2013] and  Tupigrafia: 2000–2020 Anthology edited by Claudio Rocha and Tony de Marco [Milano: Lazy Dog Press, 2021.)

• The Journal of Typographic Research, edited by Merald E. Wrolstad (1924–2005), lasted from 1967 to 1970 when it changed its name to Visible Language to indicate a broader scope of interest. However, from 1970 until at least 2016 it continued to publish important articles on typography, though with less frequency after 1987 when Sharon Helmer Poggenpohl took over as editor.
Typographica (original series 1949–1959; and new series 1960–1967) was edited and designed by Herbert Spencer. (See Typographica by Rick Poynor (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2001.)
Emigre (1984–2005) was originally subtitled “A Magazine for Exiles”. With issue no. 2 (1985) the subtitle changed to “The Magazine that Ignores Boundaries”, but from issue no. 5 on (1986–2005) the subtitle continually changed to reflect the specific contents. It did not begin to focus on graphic design and typography until issue no. 10 (1988). After that issues of Emigre were at the center of debates about type design and typography in the 1990s. Its absence from One Hundred Books Famous in Typography is a shame.
Typography Papers (1996–2011) was edited by the Department of Typography and Graphic Communication at the University of Reading which published issues 1–5. Hyphen Press published issues 6–9. Although many of its issues contain important articles on typography, no. 4 (2000) is especially valuable for its documentation of the famous dispute between Max Bill and Tschichold in 1946. That issue alone deserves to be part of One Hundred Books Famous in Typography.
Quaerendo (1971–present) has been devoted to manuscripts and printed books in Europe, with a focus on the Low Countries. It has included several important articles on typography, most notably a three-part series by G.W. Ovink on “Nineteenth-century reactions against the didone type model” (1971–1972) and two by Gerard Unger, one on Experimental No. 223 by W.A. Dwiggins (1981) and one on the types cut by Pierre-Louis Wafflard for François-Ambroise Didot (2001).
Typographische Monatsblätter (1933–2014) was originally published by the Schweizerischer Typographenbund. In 1948 it absorbed the French-language Revue Suisse de l’Imprimerie (RSI) and in 1951 the Schweizer Graphische Mitteilungen (SGM) was folded into the publication. From then on it bore the initials TM/RSI/SGM until its demise.
Typografia was edited by Oldrich Hlavsa (1909–1995) from 1947 to 1966 but its run began at least as early as 1925 and continued after Hlavsa’s tenure.
Tupigrafia (2000–2018) has been edited by Claudio Rocha and Tony de Marco.

Matrix is an admirable but perplexing endeavor. It publishes many articles of importance and use to scholars, yet it is priced too high for most of them to subscribe to it and its limited print run restricts it to a handful of libraries. Fortunately, some articles were gathered in Type & Typography: Highlights from Matrix, the [sic] review for printers & bibliophiles (West New York, New Jersey Mark Batty Publisher, LLC, 2003). A companion anthology devoted to book illustration in Matrix was announced but apparently never published. Kelly lists five type-themed articles published in Matrix, only two of which were included in the 2003 anthology. Obviously, it is time for a second volume of such essays.

Further Reading p. 322
The Whittington Press: A Bibliography 1982–93 by David Butcher with an introduction and notes by John Randle (Risbury, Herefordshire: The Whittington Press, 1996).
• Suggested reading: Type & Typography: Highlights from Matrix, the [sic] review for printers & bibliophiles (West New York, New Jersey Mark Batty Publisher, LLC, 2003).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to Matrix for the simple reason that the periodical is set entirely in metal type. But a reference to the two Caslon specimens on pp. 284–285 would have been relevant since Caslon is the Randles’ favorite typeface.

The cover of Matrix 8 (Winter 1988). (The exhibition showed the cover of Matrix 24 [2004] and an interior page from Matrix [November 1981?] with an article about Christopher Skelton.)
• An interior page from any issue of Matrix from an article relevant to typography would have been preferable to a cover (e.g. James Mosley on Eric Gill and the Golden Cockerel Type in Matrix 2 [1982], Sebastian Carter on Victor Hammer in Matrix 7 [1987], or Dan Carr on cutting his Regulus type in Matrix 16 [1996]).

pp. 226–227
84. Adobe Systems
[Type Specimen Books] Edited by E.M. Ginger (b. 1948); designed by Laurie Szujewska.
Mountain View, California: Adobe Systems Inc., 1980s & 1990s. Octavo.
Provenance: Ex Ponto volume inscribed by the type’s designer, Jovica Veljovic, to the curator [Jerry Kelly].

• Set in a variety of Adobe typefaces.

• Text is c.432 words
• The title should be Adobe Originals.
• “These new type designs were marketed using a uniform series of type specimen books, each carefully designed and well printed, bound in softcovers [sic], to as standard size of 5 3/4[“] x 9″.” Kelly is thus excluding the larger (quarto), more historically-focused specimens Adobe published for Adobe Jenson (1996) and Adobe Garamond Premier (2006). Once again Kelly has allowed a group of related items onto his list rather than selecting a single title.
• There are no links. There should be ones to nos. 17, 22, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 30A, 35, 42, 55, 58, 61, 66, 66A, 82, and 90.
John Warnock (b. 1940) and Charles “Chuck” Geschke (1939–2021).
• “Sumner Stone” is Sumner Stone (b. 1945), Director of Typography at Adobe Systems (the company’s original name) from 1984 to 1989. After his departure he established the Stone Type Foundry.
• “Robert Slimbach” is Robert Slimbach (b. 1956), calligrapher and type designer.
• “Carol Twombly” is Carol Twombly (b. 1959), type designer.
• “Lance Hidy” is Lance Hidy (b. 1946), calligrapher, photographer, graphic designer, and design educator.
• “Jovica Veljovic” is Jovica Veljovic (b. 1954), calligrapher, type designer, and design educator.
• “Julian Waters” is Julian Waters (b. 1957), calligrapher and lettering artist.
• “PARC” was Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center.
• “Postscript [sic] software” was the first device-independent Page Description Language (PDL). Released in 1984, it was the technology that established Adobe as a company. PostScript played a key role in the DTP (Desktop Publishing) revolution.
• “Stone” should be “ITC Stone”, one of the first superfamilies (comprising ITC Stone, ITC Stone Sans, and ITC Stone Informal). Although developed by Sumner Stone while at Adobe, it was released by the International Typeface Corporation in 1987 and thus preceded the Adobe Originals program.
• “Ex Ponto” was originally Ex Ponto MM (1995), “a one axis multiple master typeface”.
• “Penumbra” was originally Penumbra MM (1994) with two variables: serif and weight.
• “Waters Titling” was originally Waters Titling MM (1997) with variable weights and widths.
• Both Trajan (1989) and Minion (1990) have undergone several iterations and expansions over the years. Both Minion and Minion MM (1992) were included in the Adobe Originals specimen series along with only the original version of Trajan.

Further Reading p. 322
The Adobe Originals Silver Anniversary Story by Tamye Riggs (San Jose, California: Adobe Systems Incorporated, 2014).
• Suggested reading: On Stone: The Art and Use of Typography on the Personal Computer by Sumner Stone (San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1991); and Carol Twombly: Her Brief but Brilliant Career in Type Design by Nancy Stock-Allen (New Castle, Delaware: Oak Knoll Press, 2016).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
p. 310—Minion Italic / Robert Slimbach 1989 / Adobe / See no. 84
p. 311—Minion Roman / Robert Slimbach 1989 / Adobe / See no. 84
p. 312—Minion Cyrillic / Robert Slimbach 1989 / Adobe / See no. 84
p. 313—Minion Greek / Robert Slimbach 1989 / Adobe / See no. 84
p. 314—Trajan / Carol Twombly 114 A.D. / Adobe / See no. 84
• Several other typefaces shown in the book could have been linked here such as Adobe Garamond Premier Pro roman and italic (pp. 270–271).

The covers of Adobe Caslon, Myriad, and Ex Ponto specimens; and a page from the Adobe Trajan specimen. (The exhibition showed spreads from the Adobe Trajan and Ex Ponto specimens.)
• These are dull choices. Why not show a page from Myriad MM or Minion MM about Adobe’s Multiple Master technology; or one showing the company’s historical research that underlay the designs of Adobe Garamond and Adobe Caslon; or one showing the concepts behind Penumbra or Waters Titling?
• The images in the catalogue blend together due to their white pages. They are clearer in the online exhibition.

Figures 1-3 from Caflisch Script: A One-Axis Multiple Master Typeface (Mountain View, California: Adobe Systems, 1993). The illustrations show the design process from Max Caflisch’s handwriting to the finished typeface by Robert Slimbach. Optical scaling was the single axis.

Page showing the Design Axis and Dynamic Range of Multiple Master typefaces. From Myriad: A Two-Axis Multiple Master Typeface (Mountain View, California: Adobe Systems, 1992). The two axes were weight and width. The chart shows other axes utilized in other Adobe typefaces such as Minion MM.

pp. 228–229
85. György Haiman (1914–1996); bibliography compiled by Elizabeth Soltész
Nicholas Kis: A Hungarian Punch-Cutter and Printer (1650–1702)
San Francisco: The Greenwood Press in Association with John Howell-Books, 1983. Octavo.
Provenance: With a letter from the publisher to The Grolier Club.

• Set in Janson. I don’t know which one since the book was not designed by Jack Stauffacher or printed by The Greenwood Press. (See A Typographic Journey: The History of The Greenwood Press and Bibliography, 1934–2000. Bibliography by Glenn Humphreys. [San Francisco: The Greenwood Press, 1999], pp. 215–216.)

• Text is c.252 words
• There should be a link to no. 72.
• The provenance letter reproduced on p. 228 is nothing more than a follow-up inquiry regarding a census of those who received announcements about the Kis book.
• “Versions [of Kis’ type] for machine composition were made by Monotype and Linotype in metal, and Adobe and others for digital type composition.”— Monotype created Ehrhardt; German Linotype made Linotype Janson (shared with Mergenthaler Linotype); the staff designed a film version for Mergenthaler Linotype called Janson Text; and Hildegard Korger (1935–2018) developed a version of Kis’ type for VEB Typoart in the 1980s which, with the help of Erhard Kaiser (b. 1957), was converted to a digital design by Elsner + Flake under the name Kis Antiqua Now. Contrary to Kelly’s assertion, Adobe has not made any original version of Kis’ types.
• Anton Janson (1620–1687).
• Haiman’s original book, published in Hungarian, was Tótfalusi Kis Miklós, a betűművész és a tipográfus élete műve betűinek és nyomtatványainak tükrében ([Budapest]; Magyar Helikon, 1972).

Further Reading p. 322
“Nicholas Kis and the Janson Types” by Harry Carter and George Buday (1907–1990) in Gutenberg Jahrbuch (Mainz: Gutenberg Gesellschaft, 1957).

Fifty Typefaces Famous in Typography
• There is no digital typeface linked to Haiman’s book. The obvious choice would be Kis Antiqua Now by Hildegard Korger and Erhard Kaiser (2009).

The cover. (The exhibition showed a spread from the book pp. 298–299 [Facsimiles Nos. 49–4 and 51] along with ancillary material.)
• The useless provenance image is on p. 228. An interior page showing samples of Kis’ types in use would have been far better than seeing the cover of Haiman’s book.

Facsimile No. 36.2 from Nicholas Kis: A Hungarian Punch-Cutter and Printer (1650–1702)
by György Haiman (San Francisco: The Greenwood Press in Association with John Howell-Books, 1983). The dedication (lines 2–10) shows Kis’ Clein Canon type.