100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography (the exhibition)—The perspective of a specialist

100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography
The Grolier Club
May 12–July 31, 2021
curated by Jerry Kelly

The Grolier Club is a private club, located on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, devoted to the collecting of books and their appreciation as material artifacts. It regularly hosts exhibitions of books (and sometimes other items like magazines) derived from its members’ collecting passions and, on occasion, traveling exhibitions from libraries and other institutions. To its credit, these exhibitions are not only open to the general public, but they are also free. Despite this, they do not generate large crowds such as those typically seen at the Metropolitan Museum of Art and many of New York’s other museums. The world of bibliophiles, even before the internet age, has always been a small one and thus a visit to the Grolier Club’s exhibitions can be not only educational, but restful.

The current exhibition opened soon after New Yorkers became widely vaccinated against Covid-19, but visitation protocols were still in place with advance reservations required and the exhibition space limited to six or fewer people at one time. However, for the past month, as pandemic restrictions have been eased across the city, the Grolier Club has allowed visitors to walk in off the street as in the past. Despite this welcome relaxation of Covid-19 protocols, I was the only visitor to 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography midday on July 20. I was not only able to see the show in quiet, but also to scrutinize the books and other items at leisure without having to make way for another visitor. It was a wonderful experience.

Although I was very familiar with over three-quarters of the books and other items in the show—including facsimiles, I own forty-six of them; have been privileged to page through another nineteen at various libraries and museums; and have viewed complete copies of fifteen more online—there were still many that came as a welcome surprise. For me, the highlights of the exhibition were principally spreads from unfamiliar books that are not illustrated in the catalogue. They include the illustrated spread from the Theuerdank (Case 1); the “Terzo Divisione” spread from La Poetica (Case 2); the opening spread of Partie II of Fertel’s La Science Pratique de l’Imprimerie (Case 3); the spread encompassing the end of the introduction and the opening of the first chapter of Johnson’s Typographia, or the Printer’s Instructor (Case 4); the Beatrice Warde spread in The Monotype Recorder (Case 5); the showing of the American Chap-Book (Case 5); Early Korean Typography (Case 6); the spread oddly juxtaposing Cheltenham and pseudo-Morrisian ornamentation in The Manual of Linotype Typography (Case 7); the Futura specimen that includes wood type versions of the iconic modernist typeface (but unfortunately not shown) (Case 7); the spread from Hart’s book on the Oxford University Press showing a charming amateur woodcut (Case 8); and the unidentified spread from So Long, Hot-Metal Men which mischieviously but successfully combined Trump Medieval Bold with Caslon and various 19h century display types (Case 11).

An exhibition like 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography was created with people like me—a graphic designer, type historian, and book collector—in mind. It is a show directed at people already in the know—if not about everything on display, at least about much of it. For visitors lacking a rudimentary knowledge of printing history, typography, or type design, 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography can be confusing.

The confusion begins with the presence of a number of non-book items—framed leaves, broadsides, magazines, prints, prospectuses, correspondence, and even some computer disks—in an exhibition entitled 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography. This potential disconnect is explained in the introduction to the catalogue of the exhibition, but not in the exhibition itself.

Other than the brief labels accompanying each item in the exhibition, the only explanatory material is a short introductory label that places 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography within the Grolier Club’s legacy of exhibitions devoted to surveys of one hundred books notable in various fields such as children’s literature and medicine. Given the Club’s bibliophilic origins, a show devoted to books about type seems inevitable. But what does “type” mean?

The only explanation of the exhibition’s premise is this text, taken from a brochure available at its entrance:

Typography has a long and distinguished history beginning with Gutenberg’s ingenious development of a system for reproducing texts, through new technologies such as hot-metal line casting, phototype and the digitally generated type of today. Along the way, numerous practitioners, such as Garamond [sic], Baskerville, Bodoni and Zapf, have raised type design and typography to the level of a fine art.

Presenting pivotal books on the subject, this show highlights milestones in the development and study of the art and discipline of printing, surveying six hundred years of major publications relating to this significant art form.

It mentions typography, type design, and printing but without defining any of those terms or trying to tease out the subtle distinctions among them. [1]

100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography fails to elucidate these topics and many others that crop up in conjunction with the items on display. The show is ostensibly broken down into sections with titles running vertically up the sides of eight of its eleven cases (seven of which are included in the brochure). Among the titles are “In the Beginning,” “The Age of Reason,” ‘The Machine Age,” and “Brave New World”. [2] There are no wall texts explaining them. Curator Jerry Kelly seems to assume that visitors can connect the dots between the title of a case and the books and other items in it. But not all of the dots are immediately obvious to a novice visitor and some are still unclear to this expert. The inclusion of The Printing of Greek in the Fifteenth Century by Robert Proctor (1900) in the case labeled “In the Beginning” with books printed between 1455 and 1517, including an Aristophanes printed in Greek by Aldus Manutius makes absolute sense. In contrast, there is no discernible reason for the placement of Typographical Printing Surfaces by Legros & Grant (1916) and Petri Bembi de Aetna Liber & Pietro Bembo on Etna by Giovanni Mardersteig (1969) with books by Bulmer, Bodoni, and Didot in a case headed “The Age of Reason”. (To add to the befuddlement, Case 3 which contains items listed in the brochure as part of “The Age of Reason,” has no title, presumably because it is a flat case and not a wall case.)

The idea of dividing the exhibition into thematic sections was a good one and would have been very useful if it had been fully thought out. The absence of supporting texts is not the only problem. The themes collide with an inconsistent attempt to sequence the books (and ephemeral material) chronologically. Much of the inconsistency seems to stem from a lack of clarity as to whether the content of a book or its date is more important as an organizational guide.

This problem is especially acute in Case 8 titled “The Study of the Craft”. The theme, encompassing books about the history of printing and typography, is a good one. Included in the case are canonical texts by Theodore Low De Vinne (1876), Horace Hart (1900), A.F. Johnson (1934 and 1935), Stanley Morison (1967), Harry Carter (1969), and Joseph Blumenthal (1972), along with the catalogue of the landmark exhibition Printing and the Mind of Man (1963). These books properly belong together based on their content, not their publication date. But the other three books in the case—The Goudy Type Family specimen (1927), An Essay on Typography by Eric Gill (1931), and Typologia by F.W. Goudy (1940), along with a 1921 broadside of Goudy’s typefaces—disrupt the concept. There are more than a dozen other books in the exhibition devoted to the history of printing and type, from A History of the Old English Letter Foundries by Talbot Baines Reed (1887) and Printing Types: Their History, Forms, and Use by Daniel Berkeley Updike (1922) (both in Case 5) to The Palaeotypography of the French Renaissance by Hendrik D.L. Vervliet (2008) (in Case 11) that would have been more pertinent.

Case 8 is even more baffling when one realizes that there is no section titled “The Study of the Craft” in the exhibition brochure. Its absence cannot be attributed to a typographical error or even simple editorial oversight since the eleven books in the case are scattered under three other section titles: two under “Looking Back,” three under “The Machine Age,” and six under “Modern Masters”.

The brochure, rather than being a helpful guide to the exhibition, is actually a hindrance. It lists the books (but none of the ancillary items) and assigns them numbers, beginning with the Biblia Latina of Gutenberg (1455) at no. 1 and concluding with A Grammar of Typography by Mark Argetsinger (2020) at no. 100. Unfortunately, the list is only quasi-chronological and, worse, the numbers are not included in the exhibition labels for each item. (And, for some unknown reason, three books on the list are not on display at all: no. 33 Oratio Dominica (1806), no. 38 Specimen of Old-Style Types (c.1868), and no. 66 Type Specimen Facsimiles 1-15 (1963). Furthermore, the muddled situation of Case 8 is not unique. The contents of other titled cases diverge from the list of books under the same title in the brochure. For instance, Case 5 “Looking Back” includes The Fleuron (1923–1930), Four Centuries of Fine Printing (1924) and Modern Fine Printing (1925) grouped with books from the Kelmscott Press and Doves Press which has some logic to it. Yet, in the brochure those three Stanley Morison items are listed under “The Machine Age,” alongside type specimens of Futura (1927) and Bifur (1928), Die neue Typographie by Jan Tschichold (1928), Layout in Advertising by W.A. Dwiggins (1928) and other publications from the 1920s. The whole thing is a conceptual shambles. Kelly must have realized this at some point since he dropped the section titles when designing the catalogue, though he retained the quasi-chronological numbering.

An additional difficulty with the section titles in the exhibition is that there are none for Cases 3, 6, and 9, all of which are flat. Not surprisingly, Case 6 has the most perplexing grouping of books in the entire show: Early Korean Typography by Sohn Pow-key (1987) [sic], William H. Page & Co.’s Specimens of Chromatic Wood Type, Borders, etc. (1874), and two editions of Charles Enschedé’s Fonderies de Caractères et Leur Materiel dans les Pays-Bas du XVe au XIXe siècle (1908 and 1978). The only thing that all four of these books have in common is that they are folios. But there are twenty-six other folios among the one hundred books selected by Kelly that could have been substituted to create a more coherent presentation (e.g. replacing Early Korean Typography with either volume of Type Specimen Facsimiles and the William H. Page & Co. specimen with The Fell Types).

Some of the problems with the installation of 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography can be attributed in part to the configuration of the gallery space at the Grolier Club as well as to the difficulties inherent in displaying books (especially their interiors) rather than items such as posters, handbills, stationery, and other flat ephemera. The crowded installation of 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography is typical of many Grolier Club exhibitions I have seen as curators, clearly eager to show as much as they can, often stuff the display cases to bursting. One consequence of this is that items and their labels jostle for space and there is rarely any room for summary texts. When shows, such as this one, include large numbers of folios the problem of space becomes more acute—a situation that might explain the absence of Bodoni’s Oratio Dominica.

The 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography exhibition differs from its catalogue in how Kelly has chosen to display each book. Only three double-page spreads are shown in the catalogue, two of them being title pages with their frontispieces. In contrast, the installation includes ninety-three double-page spreads, and there is room (and reason) for several more. Most importantly, only eighteen of them are fuller elaborations of single pages shown in the catalogue. Some of the discrepancies between the installation and the catalogue might be explained by the difficulties associated with tight bindings or stiff paper in displaying a spread in a hard cover book—but not the majority of them. Instead, the divergences reflect conscious curatorial decisions.

Three issues of the American Chap-Book designed and written by Will H. Bradley in Case 5. Unlike the catalogue, this display rightly shows interiors along with covers. The importance of the American Chap-Book lies not in Bradley’s design, but in its content which instructed American printers, by example, in how to improve their designs.

Double-page spread from So Long, Hot-Metal Men by Henricus de Nova Villa [Henry Morris] (Newtown, Pennsylvania: Bird & Bull Press, 2007). This unidentified but beautiful spread does far more to validate the inclusion of So Long, Hot-Metal Men in the exhibition than does the limp title page shown in the catalogue.

Nearly a quarter of the books in the exhibition are shown in a better light at the Grolier Club than they are in the catalogue. Two of the best examples are the Monotype Recorder (one of the non-books in the exhibition) and William Bulmer’s Poems by Goldsmith and Parnell (1795). The catalogue entry text for The Monotype Recorder emphasizes Beatrice Warde as its most influential editor. The accompanying illustration is of two covers (July/August 1924 and one unidentified) that predate her editorship which began in 1927. Although it is not identified, the exhibition shows a spread from The Monotype Recorder vol. 44, no. 1 (Autumn 1970) titled “I Am a Communicator,” a Selection of Writings and Talks by Beatrice Warde. This is much more relevant. For Poems of Goldsmith and Parnell the catalogue shows Bulmer’s note of thanks to his financial backers John Boydell and George Nicol. It is set in William Martin’s italic typeface. In the exhibition, the book is represented by a spread for “The Traveller” by Oliver Goldsmith, with a vignette by Thomas Bewick and a text set in Martin’s roman type. This is more representative of the book’s importance in the history of printing, illustration, and type design.

These criticisms of 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography will probably fall on deaf ears. The usual small number of people who will actually see the show will undoubtedly—and correctly—marvel at the great majority of books on display. Many of them are stunning to see in person. There is no question that the exhibition is filled with many landmarks in the history of printing and typography—after all, there is no debating the beauty of Bodoni’s Manuale Tipografico of 1818, the far reaching impact of the 1470 Eusebius of Nicolas Jenson, or the scholarly importance of Legros and Grant’s Typographical Printing Surfaces (1916). But there are a fair number of items in the show that fall short of the lofty standards set by books such as these. Does anyone truly versed in the history of type consider Layout in Advertising by W.A. Dwiggins (1928), A Miscellany of Type by The Whittington Press (1990), or Typology by Steven Heller and Louise Fili (1999) crucial works?

More importantly, the biggest criticism that can be leveled at 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography is that it fails to educate lay viewers about typography and type design. What is such a person to think about a case titled “Brave New World” that has no books overtly about post-metal type design and typography? Of the nine books on display (all published between 1990 and 2020), only two, The Elements of Typographic Style (1992) and A Grammar of Typography (2020) involve digital typography, though it is not evident from their appearance. The others all celebrate metal type. This is a distortion of typographic history.

If one includes the Bringhurst and Argetsinger books, there are only ten items in the exhibition which touch upon phototype and digital type. Seven of them are ganged together in the untitled Case 9 where they are inexplicably joined by Typology and supplemented by a 1948 broadside showcasing Centaur and Arrighi. What message does this send?

The average person may know what a font is, but there is no broad awareness of what typography is. Jerry Kelly and the Grolier Club have missed a major opportunity to change that. 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography will be lauded in bibliophile and typophile circles and ignored by everyone else. [3]


Addendum
At a moment when much of American (and European) society is increasingly consumed by issues of racial and gender equality and representation, 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography appears, at best, clueless and, at worst, typical of the “white patriarchy”. Although there are solid historical explanations for the absence of blacks in the exhibition, there are fewer excuses for the lack of women. The five women in the show are all there in an oblique capacity, with only one of them being singled out in the texts: Beatrice Warde, as one of the editors of The Monotype Recorder, Rosalind Randle as co-editor of Matrix, Carol Twombly as the designer of Adobe Trajan in the entry for the Adobe type specimens, E.M. Ginger as co-author of Stop Stealing Sheep, and Louise Fili, as co-author of Typology. [4] The invisibility of women in typography historically could have been acknowledged by the inclusion of Five Hundred Years of Women’s Work: The Lisa Unger Baskin Collection by Massimo Tonolli, Alberto Adami and Nadia Bottacini; edited by Laura Micham, Lauren Reno, Lisa Unger Baskin, and Naomi L. Nelson (New York: The Grolier Club, 2019). This book is the catalogue for an exhibition that took place at the Grolier Club in 2019.

Finally, it should be noted that the presence of Early Korean Typography (in Case 6) is a jolting reminder that 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography is an exhibition about Western European printing and Latin type. Printing from movable type existed in China and Korea long before Gutenberg printed his famous Bible. Sohn Pow-key’s book on the Korean aspect of this history is the only non-Western book in the exhibition. Its presence is an obvious gesture of tokenism that does more to raise questions than quell them. In the catalogue Kelly tries to addresses this issue. His explanation is clumsy, but it is better than the silence that reigns in the exhibition itself. Early Korean Typography should have been paired in some way with the leaf from the Gutenberg Bible.

A spread from Early Korean Typography by Sohn Pow-key in Case 6. It shows cast metal type on the left, and impressions from wood and metal type on the right.


Notes
1. The shifting meaning of “typography” over nearly four hundred years is discussed at length by Sebastian Carter in the foreword to the catalogue and, in his introduction, Jerry Kelly explains how he has defined the term for the purpose of selecting books for the exhibition. Unfortunately, none of that discussion makes its way into the wall text or the brochure for the exhibition.
2. The cases (with their section titles and items*) are, in clockwise order:

Case 1 [In the Beginning]—no. 1 Biblia Latina (Johann Gutenberg, 1455) [leaf]; no. 2 Psalterium (Fust & Schoeffer, 1457) [leaf]; no. 3 De Evangelica Praeparatione (Nicolas Jenson, 1470); no. 4 Elementa Geometriae (Erhard Ratdolt, 1482); no. 5 Aristophanes Opera Omnia (Aldus Manutius, 1498); no. 6 De Aetna (Aldus Manutius, 1495/6); no. 7 Virgil (Aldus Manutius, 1501); no. 8 Das Gebetbuch Kaiser Maximilians I (Johann Schönsperger, 1513 [1907]) [facsimile leaf]; no. 9 Theuerdank (Johann Schönsperger, 1517); and no. 60 The Printing of Greek in the Fifteenth Century (Robert Proctor, 1900).

Case 1 [In the Beginning]—The Gutenberg Bible, Fust & Schoeffer’s 1457 Psalter, and the 1513 Gebetbuch are represented by single leaves on the wall. The section title is visible at the right.

Case 2 [The First Golden Age]—no. 10 De Proportionibus Libri Due (Simon de Colines, 1528); no. 11 La Poetica (Ludovico Arrighi, 1529); no. 12 Champ Fleury (Geoffroy Tory, 1529); no. 12A Champ Fleury (Geoffroy Tory, 1927) with a letter from Bruce Rogers to Ruth S. Grannis (1927); no. 13 Gallorum Insubrum Antiquae Sedes (Giovanni Antonio Castiglione, 1541); no. 14 Romanum Historiam (Claude Garamont, 1551); no. 15 Dialogue de la Vie et de la Morte (Robert Granjon, 1557); no. 16 Historiarum sui temporis tomus primus (Claude Garamont, 1553); no. 17 Index Sive Specimen Characterum (Christopher Plantin, 1567); no. 18 Linguae Hebraicae Institutiones Absolutissimae (Guillaume Le Bé, 1609) with a photograph of Hebrew letters designed by Le Bé; no. 19 Mechanick Exercises vol. II (Joseph Moxon, 1683); no. 20 Description et Perfection des Arts et Métiers, des Arts Construire les Caractères (Louis Simonneau, 1695 [1961]) [single plate]; no. 22 Indice de Caratteri… nella Stampa Vaticana (Vatican Printing Office, 1628); and no. 24 Imprimerie Nationale Catalogue (Jean Jannon, 1621 [1968]).

Case 2 [The First Golden Age]—On the wall, the Romain du Roi is excellently represented by a

Case 3—no. 21 La Science Pratique de l’Imprimerie (Martin Dominique Fertel, 1723); no. 23 Bucolica, Georgica et Aeneis (John Baskerville, 1757); no. 25 Épreuves Générales des Caractères (Claude Lamesle, 1742); no. 26 Manuel Typographique 2 vols. (Pierre-Simon Fournier, 1764–1766); Proef van Letteren (J. Enschedé, 1768); no. 28 Les Caractères et les Vignettes de la Fonderie du Sieur Delacolonge (Louis Delacolonge, 1773); no. 30 A Specimen of Printing Types, by William Caslon, Letter-Founder to His Majesty (1785); A Specimen by William Caslon, Letter-Founder (1734) [broadside]; and no. 66A Type Specimen Facsimiles II (1972).

Case 3—There is no section title. William Caslon’s celebrated 1734 broadside type specimen is on the wall.

Case 4 [The Age of Reason]—no. 29 Spécimen des Nouveaux Caractères de la Fonderie et de l’Imprimerie de P. Didot, l’Ainé (Pierre Didot, 1819); no. 31 Poems of Goldsmith and Parnell (William Bulmer, 1795); no. 32 A Specimen of Printing Types and Various Ornaments (S. & C. Stephenson, 1856); no. 34 The History of Printing in America vol. II (Isaiah Thomas, 1810); no. 35 Manuale Tipografico vol. I (Giambattista Bodoni, 1818); no. 36 A Bibliography of Printing (E.C. Bigmore and C.W.H. Wyman, 1880); no. 37 Typographia (Thomas Curson Hansard, 1825); no. 39 Typographia, or the Printer’s Instructor vol.  I (John Johnson, 1824) with leaf; no. 40 The Biography and Typography of William Caxton (William Blades, 1877); no. 41 A History of the Old English Letter Foundries (Talbot Baines Reed, 1887); no. 50 Typographical Printing Surfaces (Lucien Alphonse Legros and John Cameron Grant, 1916); and no. 80 Bembi de Aetna Liber & Pietro Bembo on Etna (Giovanni Mardersteig, 1969).

Case 4 [The Age of Reason]—The Age of Reason is a peculiar section title for items ranging from 1795 to 1887, only one of which is French. (The subject of the 1969 Mardersteig book in the case is De Aetna, published by Aldus Manutius in 1495 [see Case 1].) The Fat Face type (Ten Lines No. 2) barely visible at the left is from S. & C. Stephenson’s type specimen of 1856. The accompanying label makes no mention of this. Instead it describes John Bell’s types cut by Richard Austin in the 1790s.

Case 5 [Looking Back]—no. 43 The Golden Legend (Kelmscott Press, 1892) with an 1897 prospectus for the Kelmscott Press showing the Golden Type, Troy Type, and Chaucer Type; no. 44 William Morris (Doves Press, 1901); no. 46 The Monotype Recorder (1970); no. 47 The American Chap-Book (Will H. Bradley, 1904–1905); no. 51 The Centaur (Bruce Rogers, 1915); no. 52 Kalenders (2) (Gebr. Klingspor, 1931 and n.d.); no. 53 Printing Types: Their History, Forms, and Use (Daniel Berkeley Updike, 1922); no. 56 The Fleuron (1930); no. 57 Four Centuries of Fine Printing (Stanley Morison, 1924); and no. 57A Modern Fine Printing (Stanley Morison, 1925).

Case 5 [Looking Back]—The Golden Legend (published by William Morris’ Kelmscott Press) is represented by a single leaf on the wall at left. The issue of The Monotype Recorder devoted to Beatrice Warde is in the middle of the middle shelf.

Case 6—no. 42 Specimens of Chromatic Wood Type, Borders, etc. (William H. Page & Co., 1874); no. 48 Fonderies de Caractères et Leur Materiel dans les Pays-Bas du XVe au XIXe siècle (Charles Enschedé, 1908); no. 48A Typefounderies in the Netherlands from the Fifteenth Century to the Nineteenth Century (Charles Enschedé, 1978); and no. 74 Early Korean Typography (Sohn Pow-key, 1982).

Case 6—There is no section title. From left to right, the books are Early Korean Typography, Page’s Specimens of Chromatic Wood Type, Borders, etc., and the 1908 and 1978 Enschedé histories.

Case 7 [The Machine Age]—no. 54 The Manual of Linotype Typography (Mergenthaler Linotype Company, 1923); no. 55 Specimen Book and Catalogue 1923: Dedicated to the Typographic Art (American Type Founders, 1923); no. 59 Die neue Typographie (Jan Tschichold, 1928); no. 62 Futura: Die Grössen Grade (Noch Grösser in Holz) (Paul Renner, n.d.); no. 63 Layout in Advertising (W.A. Dwiggins, 1928); no. 64 Bifur (A.M. Cassandre, 1928); no. 69 A Tally of Types (Stanley Morison, 1953); no. 70 Designing Books (Jan Tschichold, 1951); Finer Points in the Spacing & Arrangement of Type (Geoffrey Dowding, 1954); and a small broadside about Eric Gill by Barry Moser.

Case 7 [The Machine Age]—A specimen of Futura (not the one listed in the brochure or catalogue) is excellently paired with Jan Tschichold’s Die neue Typographie at left. The portrait on the wall is of Eric Gill.

Case 8 [The Study of the Craft]—no. 45 Notes on a Century of Typography at the University Press, Oxford, 1693-1794 (Horace Hart, 1900); no. 49 Historic Printing Types (Theodore Low De Vinne, 1876); no. 58 The Goudy Type Family (American Type Founders, 1927); no. 61 Catalogue of Specimens of Printing Types by English and Scottish Printers and Founders, 1665–1830 (W. Turner Berry and A.F. Johnson, 1935); no. 65 Type Designs: Their History and Development (A.F. Johnson, 1934); no. 67 An Essay on Typography (Eric Gill, 1931); no. 68 Typologia (Frederic W. Goudy, 1940); no. 76 Printing and the Mind of Man (1963); no. 78 The Fell Types (Stanley Morison, 1967); no. 79 A View of Early Typography (Harry Carter, 1969); no. 81 Art of the Printed Book (Joseph Blumenthal, 1972) with a broadside announcement for the book by David R. Godine, Publisher; a note by Joseph Blumenthal (n.d.); and A Broadside Showing Types Designed by Frederic W. Goudy (1921).

Case 8 [The Study of the Craft]—On the wall at left is the 1921 broadside showing the Goudy types at The Marchbanks Press. Eric Gill’s Essay on Typography is the third book from the left on the shelf.

Case 9—no. 82 The ITC Typeface Collection (International Typeface Corporation, 1980); no. 82A U&lc (International Typeface Corporation, 1985); no. 86 Twentieth Century Type Designers (Sebastian Carter, 1987); no. 89 Digital Formats for Typefaces (Peter Karow, 1987); no. 90 Fuse 1 (Neville Brody and Jon Wozencroft, 1991); no. 93 Stop Stealing Sheep (Erik Spiekermann and E.M. Ginger, 1993); no. 95 La Lumitype-Photon: René Higonnet, Louis Moyraud et l’invention de la photocomposition moderne (Alan Marshall, 1995); no. 98 Typology (Steven Heller and Louise Fili, 1999); and broadside Centaur and Arrighi (Mackenzie & Harris, 1948).

Case 9—There is no section title. The 1948 Mackenzie & Harris Centaur and Arrighi broadside is on the wall. Typology is to the right of the Fuse 1 materials. The 1985 issue of U&lc at the right is opened to a showing of ITC Esprit by Jovica Veljovic.

Case 10 [Modern Masters]—no. 71 Manuale Typographicum [I] (Hermann Zapf, 1954); no. 71 A Manuale Typographicum [II] (Hermann Zapf, 1968); no. 72 Janson: A Definitive Collection (Jack Stauffacher, 1954); no. 73 On Designing and Devising Type (Jan van Krimpen, 1957); no. 77 Vita Activa (Georg Trump. 1967); no. 83 Matrix (John & Rosalind Randle, 1981 and 2004); no. 84 Nicholas Kis: A Hungarian Punch-Cutter and Printer (1650–1702) (György Haiman, 1983) with prospectus and bookjacket[?]; no. 88 A Miscellany of Type (The Whittington Press, 1990); and a broadside Printing at The Whittington Press 1972–1994 (The Grolier Club, 1994).

Case 10 [Modern Masters]—The modern masters of type design included here are Hermann Zapf, Jan van Krimpen, Georg Trump, Carol Twombly, Jovica Veljovic. Miklós Kis (1650–1702), a non-modern master, is represented by György Haiman’s biography of him (third book from the left and two items above it on the wall) and, below it, The Definitive Janson. Other modern (i.e. 20th century) masters of type design (such as Eric Gill, Paul Renner, W.A. Dwiggins, Frederic W. Goudy, and Adrian Frutiger) can be found in Cases 5, 7, 8, 9 and 11.

Case 11 [Brave New World]—no. 87 American Proprietary Typefaces (American Printing History Association, 1998); no. 91 Anatomy of a Typeface (Alexander Lawson, 1990); The Elements of Typographic Style (Robert Bringhurst, 1992); no. 94 Into Print (John Dreyfus, 1994); no. 96 So Long, Hot-Metal Men (Henry Morris, 2007); no. 96A The Private Typecasters (Richard Hopkins, 2008); no. 97 The Palaeotypography of the French Renaissance 2 vols. (Hendrik D.L. Vervliet, 2008); no. 99 Adrian Frutiger—Typefaces: The Complete Works (Adrian Frutiger, 2009); and no. 100 A Grammar of Typography (Mark Argetsinger, 2020).

Case 11 [Brave New World]—The only book in the case that touches directly on the design of phototype and digital type is Adrian Frutiger—The Complete Typefaces on the bottom at the far right. Alan Marshall’s book on the history of the Lumitype, for which Frutiger designed several typefaces, is in Case 9.

Missing: no. 33 Oratio Dominica (Giambattista Bodoni, 1806); no. 38 Specimen of Old-Style Types (Miller & Richard, c.1868), and no. 66 Type Specimen Facsimiles 1-15 (1963).
3. An example of the conventional, uncritical response to an exhibition such as 100 Hundred Books Famous in Typography is this remark from The Daily Heller blog at printmag.com: “It may not be the sexiest title (like Hot Type Books Go Wild) but it will go down in history as the preeminent scholarly work. A must-have.”
4. In the catalogue, Kris Holmes (as co-designer of Lucida Greek) and Carol Twombly (Adobe Trajan) appear in the section devoted to “Fifty Typefaces Famous In Typography”.

*the numbers, taken from the exhibition brochure and catalogue, do not appear in the installation itself. Furthermore, this listing does not perfectly match the listing of the exhibition’s contents on the Grolier Club’s website which lacks numbers.