The Definitive Dwiggins no. 703D—How the Old World Found the New: De Leon, De Soto, and Drake
This is the fourth installment of a detailed account of each of the illustrations in How the Old World Found the New that I believe Dwiggins reworked in varying degrees.  They are presented in the order in which they appear in the book, preceded by notes on their probable source and, wherever possible, primary and secondary images. This installment covers pages 167 to 205 and the exploits of Sir Francis Drake as well as the Spaniards Ponce de Leon and Hernando De Soto in Florida and the Southwest.
List of reworked illustrations and their sources for pp. 167–205
p. 167 “An English Galleon of Drake’s Time”
This is an illustration of the Ark Raleigh, built at Deptford for Sir Walter Raleigh in 1587. It was originally engraved as “The Ark Royal” by Claes Janszoon Visscher the same year. Dwiggins probably reworked the version reproduced in Sailing Ships by E. Keble Chatterton (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, Ltd., 1909), p. 209.
p. 171 “A Spanish Treasure Frigate”
This drawing of a Spanish treasure frigate was ostensibly made by a British spy c.1590. It was reproduced in several books in the early 20th century, including Sailing Ships by E. Keble Chatterton (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, Ltd., 1909), p. 215, and Admirals of the Caribbean by Francis Russell Hart (Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1922), opposite p. 40. Dwiggins most likely worked from one of these two. His version scrubs out the annotations and adds a little shading to the hull, but otherwise respects the original.
p. 178 “Procession of Queen Elizabeth to Visit a Lord”
This illustration was based on an engraving of a painting reproduced in Progresses and Public Processions of Queen Elizabeth by John Nichols (London: John Nichols and Sons, 1823), vol. I, p. 282. The engraving is by J. Bouvier after a painting by Marc Gerrards.  Dwiggins has converted the halftone to line art.
p. 182 “‘Naked Red Men Ran about among the Trees, and at the End of a Bay Were Some of Their Rough Houses'”
The embarrassing title of this illustration comes, surprisingly, from Barnard and Tall’s text. The image is one of several by de Bry based on watercolor drawings by Jacques Le Moyne chronicling the French exploration of what is now Florida and Georgia. This illustration depicts the arrival of the French at Port Royal. It appears in black-and-white in Brevis narratio… by Theodore de Bry (Frankfurt am Main: Johannes Wecheli, 1591) and in color in Der ander Theil der newlich erfundenen Landtschafft Americae… by Theodore de Bry (Frankfurt am Main: Johan Feyrabend, 1591). Dwiggins undoubtedly worked from a later monochrome version.
Dwiggins has removed all of the water shading; cropped the illustration at the right, leaving out a strutting buck; and deleted the place captions.
p. 185 “A Village of Florida Indians”
This illustration can also be traced back to another Le Moyne watercolor copied by de Bry in black-and-white in Brevis narratio… (1591) and in color in Der Ander Theil der newlich erfundenen Landtschafft Americae… (1591). In the version in How the Old World Found the New Dwiggins has done little more than remove much of de Bry’s shading.
p. 196 “Indians with Flaming Arrows Firing a Village”
A third watercolor drawing by Le Moyne, engraved by de Bry in Brevis narratio… (1591) and Der Ander Theil der newlich erfundenen Landtschafft Americae… (1591), is the basis for this illustration. Like the other two Le Moyne/de Bry illustrations Dwiggins has merely removed shading to create a cleaner and more legible image.
p. 201 “‘A Little Crowded Village'”
The title quotation “‘A Little Crowded Village’” comes from Pedro Castañeda, the historian of Coronado’s expedition, but the illustration is based on a late 19th century photograph by the Bureau of Ethnography of Zuñi terraces in Cibola, the town that disappointed the Spaniards seeking gold. Dwiggins has altered the perspective a little and added figures of Zuñi Indians.
p. 203 “A Chief’s Wigwam and Dogs”
The basis for this illustration is a handcolored aquatint by Friedrich Salathé and Johann Hurlimann entitled A Skin Lodge of an Assiniboin Chief. (Paris, Coblenz and London: [1839–1842]), Vig. 16. It was based, in turn, on two 1833 watercolor paintings by Karl Bodmer, a Swiss artist who accompanied Prince Maximilian of Wied-Neuwied on his travels in North America in the early 1830s.  Salathé and Hurlimann’s aquatint is a conflation of Bodmer’s paintings of a Sioux camp and an Assiniboin one—with the addition of an Indian warrior on horseback. A comparison of Bodmer’s paintings and Salathé and Hurlimann’s aquatint is below.
The illustration in How the Old World Found the New is derived from Salathé and Hurlimann’s aquatint, but without the Indian on horseback—though their Indian child and dog is included!
p. 205 “A Warrior of the Plains Dressed for the Dance”
The source of this illustration, probably the most memorable one in How the Old World Found the New, is a handcolored aquatint engraving of “Pehriska-Ruhpa: Moennitarri Warrior in the Costume of the Dog Danse [sic]” made between 1839 and 1842 by René Rollet, which was itself based on a watercolor painting by Bodmer. Dwiggins probably worked from a halftone photoengraving of Rollet’s aquatint rather than from the original. One appeared in The Adventures of Captain Bonneville, U.S.A in the Rocky Mountains and the Far West edited by Washington Irving (New York and London: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1895), vol. 2, after p. 180. Dwiggins’ drawing is more than a simple translation of a tonal image into line art as he has refashioned Pehriska-Ruhpa’s face, giving it a dignified fierceness missing from Rollet’s version.
1. See The Definitive Dwiggins no. 702 for an analysis of the different categories of redrawing that Dwiggins undertook for the various illustrations.
2. “Royal Procession of Queen Elizabeth to Visit Lord Hunsdon” in Progresses and Public Processions of Queen Elizabeth by John Nichols (London: John Nichols and Sons, 1823), p. 282. The reproduction of this engraving in Our Ancestors: An Introduction to American History by Jennie Hall (Boston: Silver, Burdett and Company, 1916), p. 407 has cropped the left side.
3. Travels in the Interior of North America During the Years 1832–34 by Maximilian, Prince of Wied-Neuwied; translated by H. Evans Lloyd (London: Ackermann, 1843) is a translation of Reise in das innere Nord-America in den Jahren 1832 bis 1834. The Ackermann edition was reprinted as Maximilian, Prince of Wied’s Travels in the Interior of North America, 1832-1834 (Cleveland: The A. H. Clark Company, 1906), but it did not include all of the plates. Among the missing plates is the portrait of Pehriska-Ruhpa.
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Irving, Washington, ed. The Adventures of Captain Bonneville, U.S.A in the Rocky Mountains and the Far West (New York and London: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1895), vol. 2
Markham, Edwin, ed. The Real America in Romance: An Authentic History of America from the Discovery to the Present Day Profusely Illustrated with Portraits of Historical Characters and Views of the Sacred and Memorable Places of Our Native Land (New York: W.H. Wise, 1911), vol. III Swords of Flame: The Age of Animosity 1547–1570
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