The Definitive Dwiggins no. 115—Ginn and Ancient Rome (addendum)

The source for Dwiggins’ illustration of a Templum in Collar and Daniell’s First Year Latin is obviously the Roman Temple at Nîmes, France, popularly called the Maison Carrée. But what did he use as a model for his drawing? A photograph or an existing illustration? There are numerous views of the temple from the northwest as paintings, drawings, engravings, lithographs, and photographs. [1] But none of them have his flattened pediment and missing roof. The closest example that I have found, in terms of how the steps are angled, is an engraving by L. Libonis in the Dictionnaire Français Illustré des Mots et des Choses ou Dictionnaire Encyclopédique des Écoles, des Métiers et de la Vie Pratique… by Larive and Fleury (Paris: Jouvet et Cie., Éditeurs, 1891), vol. II, p. 728. The illustration of the Roman Temple at Nîmes in Medieval and Modern Times: An Introduction to the History of Western Europe from the Dissolution of the Roman Empire to the Opening of the Great War of 1914 by James Harvey Robinson (Boston: Ginn and Company, 1916), p. 10 is similar. The presence of the street lamp indicates it was based on a photograph.

It seems inconceivable that Dwiggins would have gone to the trouble of slightly altering an existing image of the temple. Which leaves us with the question of what was his source?


Below are several images of the Maison Carrée, including the one by Dwiggins, for comparison. More can be found on the maisoncarree.eu website.
• “Temple Called the Maison Carrée, at Nimes” from History of Rome, and of the Roman People from Its Origin to the Establishment of the Christian Empire by Victor Duruy; translated by M.M. Ripley and W.J. Clarke; edited by Rev. J.P. Mahaffy (Boston: C.F. Jewett Publishing Company, 1883), vol. 6, part 1, p. 62. Drawing Dosso; engraving by A. Kohl.
• “Nîmes: Maison Carrée” from Dictionnaire Français Illustré des Mots et des Choes… by Larive and Fleury (Paris: Jouvet et Cie., Éditeurs, 1891), vol. II, p. 728. Engraving by L. Libonis.
• “Templum” from Collar and Daniell’s First Year Latin revised by Thornton Jenkins Boston: Ginn & Company, 1918), p. 47. Illustration by W.A. Dwiggins.
• Fig. 4. Roman Temple at Nîmes from Medieval and Modern Times: An Introduction to the History of Western Europe from the Dissolution of the Roman Empire to the Opening of the Great War of 1914 by James Harvey Robinson (Boston: Ginn and Company, 1916), p. 10.
• photograph by Sir Alexander Binnie of the Maison Carrée at Nîmes from The Grandeur that Was Rome: A Survey of Roman Culture and Civilisation… by J.C. Stobart (London: Sidgwick & Jackson Ltd., 1912), opposite p. 198. Binnie was the chief engineer to the London County Council.

“Temple Called the Maison Carrée, at Nîmes” from History of Rome, and of the Roman People from Its Origin to the Establishment of the Christian Empire by Victor Duruy; translated by M.M. Ripley and W.J. Clarke; edited by Rev. J.P. Mahaffy (Boston: C.F. Jewett Publishing Company, 1883), vol. 6, part 1, p. 62. Illustration by Dosso; engraving by A. Kohl.

“Nîmes: Maison Carrée” from Dictionnaire Français Illustré des Mots et des Choes… by Larive and Fleury (Paris: Jouvet et Cie., Éditeurs, 1891), vol. II, p. 728. Engraving by L. Libonis.

“Templum” from Collar and Daniell’s First Year Latin revised by Thornton Jenkins Boston: Ginn & Company, 1918), p. 47. Illustration by W.A. Dwiggins.

Fig. 4. Roman Temple at Nîmes. From Medieval and Modern Times by James Harvey Robinson (Boston: Ginn and Company, 1916), p. 10

Plate XLVI. Maison Carrée, Nismes. From The Grandeur that Was Rome: A Survey of Roman Culture and Civilisation… by J.C. Stobart (London: Sidgwick & Jackson Ltd., 1912), facing p. 198.


Notes
1. Two examples of the Maison Carrée depicted from the northwest are “Temples La Maison Quarree de Nismes” (copperplate engraving) in L’Antiquité expliquée, et representée en figures by Bernard de Montfaucon (Paris: Florentin Delaulne, Paris, 1719), vol. II, part I; and A Day in Nismes by Beata Elizabeth Macaulay (London: Joseph Masters, 1855), p. 93. For more images of the Maison Carrée from that perspective (and others) see the drawings, paintings, engravings, lithographs, photographs, and postcards of the building in the catalogue section of the Maison Carrée website.