From the Archives no. 18—Satz- und Druck-Musterheft 1938
Satz- und Druck-Musterheft 1938
Vorlagenheft für Setzer, Drucker, Werbefachleute, Graphiker und Reproduktionstechniker
Berlin: Verlag der Graphischen Monatsschrift “Deutscher Drucker”, 1938
Satz- und Druck-Musterheft 1938, a printing trades periodical, is another instance where I wish I was able to read more than a few words and phrases in German. (The translations here were done with the kind help of Indra Kupferschmid who also helped with proofreading the German.) It is a compendium of articles about printing, typography and design coupled with numerous advertisements for type foundries, printing press manufacturers, ink and chemical manufacturers, and paper companies. As such it presents an intriguing snap-shot of graphic design and typography in Nazi Germany. Other than flags and uniforms in a single photograph of Nazi party members marching, there are only two swastikas in the entire publication!
Most of the articles are written by Fritz Genzmer (1888–?), a longtime author of articles and books on the printing industry who was still active into the late 1970s. Others appear to be reprinted from other printing magazines since they bear dates from 1936 and 1937. Several of them are written by Willy (or Willi) Mengel who also had a long career writing about printing and type. Finally, there are articles in the annual showcase printing and design schools.
Genzmer is best known for Das Buch des Setzers, a basic guide to German typefaces. The ﬁrst edition was published in 1936. The one displayed on the Luc Devroye’s website is from the sixth edition (1948) and Helvetica Forever refers to an edition from 1967 in footnote 80. See Genzmer 1948. The 1948 edition covers the typefaces of twelve German foundries (Bauersche Giesserei, Ludwig & Mayer, D. Stempel, H. Berthold, Norddeutsche Schriftgiesserei, Genzsch & Heyse, Gebr. Klingspor, J.G. Schelter & Geisecke, Ludwig Wagner, Schriftguss AG [formerly Brüder Butter], J.D. Trennert und Sohn, and C.E. Weber), dividing them into either blackletter or antiqua. See Genzmer 1948 PDF.
Genzmer’s articles are “Buchtitel in Fraktur und Antiqua”, “Behördliche Drucksachen”, “Normdrucksachen in zeitgemäßer Gestaltung”, “Asymmetrie oder Mittelachse?” and “Der Gebrauchstypograph Thannhaeuser”. “Buchtitel in Fraktur und Antiqua” (Book Titles in Blackletter and Roman) is one of several items in the periodical devoted to this persistent German question: blackletter or roman type? The text is set in Jiu-Jitsu, a casual script, with the title in a “sans serif” script named Knock-out [not to be confused with Knockout from Hoefler & Frere-Jones]. The nine samples accompanying the article, designed by Arthur Murawski, employ a mix of blackletter and roman types. For the purposes of this article roman includes serif and sans serif types as well as scripts; while blackletter includes textura, rotunda, schwabacher and fraktur as well as Schaftstiefelgrotesk [“jackboot gothic”] types*. The latter are modernized texturas that have often been associated with the rise of Nazism, hence the perjorative nickname. Actually, they are better seen as blackletter counterparts to the new geometric sans serifs emerging at the end of the 1920s. See my article “Lead Soldiers” in Print LII:III (July/August 1998) and reprinted in Texts on Type: Critical Writings on Typography edited by Steven Heller and Philip B. Meggs (New York: Allworth Press, 2001).
*hereafter, I will use the German word as an import into English and not capitalize it or italicize it.
Plastica (similar to Umbra)
City halbfett and fett
Deutschland-Kursiv (a Schrägschrift or inclined textura)
Four designs combine a blackletter and a roman; two use two blackletter faces; and the remaining three match two roman faces (one of which combines two sans serifs). There are no schaftstiefelgrotesks.
Genzmer’s “Behördliche Drucksachen” (Official Printed Matter) article is set in an unidentiﬁed Venetian Oldstyle (or, as the Germans would call it, Venezianische Renaissance-Antiqua) with the title in Manuskript-Gotisch. The accompanying samples are entirely in blackletter typefaces, yet the layouts are often asymmetrical in the manner of die neue typographie! The typefaces are: Psalterium, Leibniz-Fraktur, Schmale halbfett National (a schaftstiefelgrotesk), Alemannia-Fraktur, Krimhilde mager and halbfett (a monoline script with fraktur structure), and Wallau.
“Normdrucksachen in zeitgemäßer Gestaltung” (Contemporary Standardized Printed Material) is set entirely in Walbaum-Antiqua. The seven samples, once again by Murawski, are a wild mix of blackletter and roman types. The designs are stationery and many are laid out in a modernist asymmetrical manner. Four use both blackletter and roman and three are set entirely in roman types. None are entirely in blackletter types. The only schaftstiefelgrotesk is a schrägschrift.
Genzmer’s article “Der Gebrauchstypograph Thannhaeuser” (The Commercial Typographer Thannhaeuser) is a proﬁle of Herbert Thannhaeuser (1898–1963), graphic designer and type designer. It is appropriately set in his Parcival-Antiqua (Schelter & Giesecke, 1926), a neoclassical typeface. The examples of his work utilize a number of faces, only a few of which I can identify: Baskerville, Memphis and Mundus Antiqua. The only blackletter is Deutschschrift and it appears once.
“Asymmetrie oder Mittelachse?” (Asymmetry or Middle-Axis [Symmetry]?) by Genzmer is as much a burning question of the time as fraktur vs. roman, though it is surprising to see it out in the open in Nazi Germany, especially as late as 1938. Jeremy Aynsley, in Graphic Design in Germany 1890–1945, writes, “A ﬁnal gauge of the impact of the new typography [which advocated asymmetrical layout] can be taken from the adverse reaction it prompted…..” (p. 185) He then goes on to quote (pp. 185–188) from a 1937 Penrose Annual article by Gustav Stresow complaining that modernist typography was too radical a break with the past, that it failed to take into account “the power of tradition”. Stresow defended the return to fraktur (meaning all blackletter) as an essential aspect of the German language. Aynsley does not mention Satz- und Druck-Musterheft in his text nor is it (or Fritz Genzmer) in his bibliography. The article is set entirely in Gotenburg (D. Stempel, 1935) by Friedrich Heinrich, a textura that is simpliﬁed but not mechanical like a schaftstiefelgrotesk. The ten accompanying pairs of illustrations show texts set both symmetrically and asymmetrically for an objective comparison of their merits. Both roman and blackletter typefaces are used: Stempel Garamond, Bodoni, Stempel Sans (also known as Neuzeit Grotesk), Memphis, Mundus Antiqua; Magere Gotenburg and Schmale Tannenberg, a schaftstiefelgrotesk. Genzmer says, “Asymmetrie also ist Leben, Bewegung, Schwung; Symmetrie Ruhe und Beharrung.” (“Asymmetry is thus life, motion, verve; symmetry is rest and equilibrium.”) He describes the debate over which is more appropriate to modern times, thusly,
Asymmetrie gegen Mittelachse, Bewegung gegen Ruhe, eines aus der Zeit geboren, das andere verwurzelt in beschaulichen Bezirken ruhigerer Zeitläufe. Was steht dem Sinn und den Wünschen unserer Generation näher? Sind die Argumente, die für die asymmetrische Satzgestaltung sprechen, stark genug, um ihre form zu rechtfertigen? Ist uns Modernen auch die Mittelachse noch erträglich, vielleicht, weil unser Sehnen aus der Zeit der Unruhe wieder zur Ruhe drängt? Wenn nämlich nicht alles trägt, haben wir schon den ersten Schritt auf dem Wege zurück zu ihr getan. Oder ist der Odem unserer Zeit so stark, daß unser Aderschlag in allen Außerungen den gleichen Rhythmus hat? Die objektive Gegenüberstellung unsere Beispiele kann vielleicht die Antwort darauf geben.
Asymmetry versus symmetry, motion versus rest; one born out of its time, the other rooted in the placid districts of the calmer courses of time. What is closer to the mind and wishes of our generation? Are the arguments advocating asymmetrical design strong enough to justify its form? Is symmetry still tolerable for us as modern people, perhaps because a time of unrest has made us crave tranquility again? Because, if all of this does not give way, we have already made the ﬁrst step on the way back to it. Or is the spirit of our time so strong that our pulse, in all of its expressions, has the same rhythm? The objective comparison of our examples might be able to provide an answer to this.
Genzmer concludes by asking the readers of Satz- und Druck-Musterheft to weigh in with their opinions on the subject. Perhaps their responses appear in the 1939 issue.
Willi Mengel wrote articles for Gebrauchsgraphik, Archiv für Druck und Papier, Druck, Papier und Druck, Typographische Monatsblätter and other publications well into the 1970s. He was also the author of Ottmar Mergenthaler and the Printing Revolution (Brooklyn: Mergenthaler Linotype Company, 1954) and Druckschriften der Gegenwart: Klassiﬁziert nach DIN 16518 (Stuttgart: Blersch, 1966). In Satz- und Druck-Musterheft 1938 he contributed three articles. The ﬁrst is “Die Eigenwerbung des Buchdruckers” (The Self-Promotion of the Printer). Its text is set in Bodoni with title in Wallau. The examples are set in a mix of faces, many of them scripts. The combinations are: Allegro and Candida; National and Erbar-Grotesk; Skizze and Tempo; Allegro and Welt-Antiqua (a square serif face like Memphis); Altenburger-Gotisch and Erbar-Grotesk; Welt-Antiqua and Skizze; and, by themselves, National and National Schräg. National is a schaftstiefelgrotesk and its pairing with Erbar, a geometric sans serif, reinforces my view that such faces were seen by their designers as modernized blackletters, suitable for those who wanted to maintain “Germanness” while working in the new typographic style of the time.
“Der Bilder-Umbruch in der Zeitung” (Picture Composition in Newspapers) by Mengel is reprinted from the March 1937 issue of Deutscher Drucker. It is in this article that a photograph of Nazi party members marching with flags appears. The layout is by Walter Zahn. The text is set in Baskerville with title in Wallau. (Wallau appears over and over again in Satz- und Druck-Musterheft 1938, but never in the later “German” version with revised capitals.) The newspaper examples, not surprisingly, are all set in various frakturs. However, some of the article titles are in Futura and Fanfare (1927), a heavy, expressionistic display face by Louis Oppenheim (1879–1936) which inhabits the middle ground between textura and sans serif.
Mengel’s third article is “April… der macht, was er will!” (April … Does its Worst!). Once again it is set in Baskerville with Wallau for the title. An unidentiﬁed italic is used for the subtitle. The sample designs are all in either various blackletters or typewriter fonts with the exception of some in Futura.
The anonymous J.W. is the author of “Der Zeitschriftenumschlag als Werbefaktor” (Magazine Covers as an Advertising Vehicle). It is set in Baskerville with Wallau for the title. (This must have been the default style of Satz- und Druck- Musterheft, a blend of blackletter and roman.) The sample designs are in Bodoni, blackletter (some handlettering, but also National) as well as various sans serifs (some handlettering alongside Futura). The captions to the illustrations are set in Futura. Rudolf Franke (brother of Karl Franke? see below), wrote “Das Photo in der Akzidenz” (Photos in Jobbing Work). The title and text are set in a Venetian Oldstyle. The samples are set in the same Venetian Oldstyle, Super-Grotesk (a Futura clone), Splendor (a script), and Fette Fraktur. Karl Franke (1894–1952), a proponent of the New Typography (See http://wiedler.ch/felix/books/story/387 which traces the history of Typographische Mitteilungen from 1930 to 1933), contributed “Typographische Korrektheit und Deutscher Stil” (Typographical Correctness and German Style). It is set entirely in Wallau. The typography, by Franke, is beautifully done using a light weight of the typeface with generous leading. The samples are set in a mixture of blackletter and roman: Claudius, Kleist Fraktur, Wilhelm Klingsporschrift, Offenbach, Wallau, and Kurrentschrift; and Orpheus and Tiemann-Antiqua. The typefaces are all from Gebr. Klingspor.
One of the most important articles in Satz- und Druck-Musterheft 1938, from a design history perspective, is “XI. Olympiade Berlin 1936” by Georg Wagner. This is a survey of the graphic and visual design associated with the famous 1936 Berlin Olympics, the Olympic games in which Jesse Owens and Ralph Metcalfe ruined Hitler’s dream of showcasing Aryan athletic supremacy. (See Berlin Olympics, Jesse Owens and Ralph Metcalfe.)
The title is set in Stempel Garamond with the subtitle in a baroque fraktur (Breitkopf Fraktur?). The text is set entirely in the same fraktur. The captions are set in Linotype Garamond Italic (based on Stempel Garamond). However, the images rarely include any blackletter. The posters, including several by Ludwig Hohlwein, are handlettered in classical roman capitals, fat faces or sans serifs. The brochures and other publications are set almost entirely in Futura (an unidentiﬁed seriffed roman is used for one written in Polish) with one exception. The covers of Olympiaheft are all handlettered (?) in the schaftstiefelgrotesk style. (For other covers click here and here.) Programs for the Games are entirely in Futura. Stationery is in both an Old English (perhaps Manuskript-Gotisch or Caslon-Gotisch) and an unidentiﬁed seriffed roman. Finally, the mastheads of the different language versions of the Olympic Games News Service vary with most in an Old English, some in italic, and some in a roman. It is clear that the posters and publications intended for a non-German audience are in roman while those for Germans are in blackletter. However, the signage lettering that is shown is all Futura or a Futura clone.
The schools that are proﬁled in Satz- und Druck-Musterheft 1938 are the Berufschule für das graphische Gewerbe Berlin, Die Städt. Handwerkerschule Breslau, the Meisterschule für Deutschlands Buchdrucker in München (where Paul Renner and Jan Tschichold previously taught), the Gewerbeschule Zwickau (SA), Arno Schmeisser Gewerbeschule Zwickau (SA), and the Buchdrucke-Lehranstalt in Leipzig. The article on the Berufschule für das graphische Gewerbe Berlin focuses on layout and typography (Entwurf und Satzgestaltung / Layout and Typography) from the 1935/1936 winter semester. The article is set in Renata (a fraktur) for the text with Fette Fraktur for the title and Bodoni-Kursiv for some of the subheads. The initial capital is in Quick, a script typeface similar to Trafton Script. The samples of student work employ both blackletter and roman typefaces: Manuskript-Gotisch with Bodoni-Antiqua and Bodoni-Kursiv; Fette Antiqua with Quick; Weiss-Gotisch with Bodoni-Antiqua and Beton (a square serif); Manuskript-Gotisch with Corvinus-Antiqua and Corvinus-Kursiv; Futura with Quick and Flott (a heavy monoline script); and Manuskript-Gotisch with Quick. (Corvinus, designed by Imre Reiner, is an Art Deco-inflected neoclassical face issued in 1934 by Bauer.)
The contribution from the Meisterschule für Deutschlands Buchdrucker in München is from February 1937. It focuses on “Deutsche Druckschrift”—the introductory text (set in Walbaum-Antiqua with Trump-Deutsch for the title) ends with “Heil Hitler!” The work uses Walbaum-Fraktur, Manuskript-Gotisch, Trump-Deutsch, Ganz Grobe Gotisch (a chunky textura by F.H.E. Schneidler), Janson, an unidentiﬁed fat face and Futura. Georg Trump, designer of Trump-Deutsch, was a student of Schneidler’s. He was the director of the Meisterschule für Deutschlands Buchdrucker after Renner was dismissed by the Nazis. His tenure lasted from 1934 to 1953.
The article on the Buchdrucke-Lehranstalt in Leipzig, in celebration of its ﬁftieth anniversary, touts the school’s history. The text, set in Zentenar (as is the title and the captions), concludes with the exhortation, “Heil Hitler!” The work is set in a limited mix of blackletter and roman from Bauersche Giesserei: Weiss-Gotisch, Weiss-Antiqua, Weiss Initials and Futura. The Weiss faces are by E.R. Weiss (1875–1943), one of the leading German book and type designers of the pre-World War II era. (There is a forthcoming book on Weiss by Gerald Cinamon.)
The examples of book design from Die Buchgewerbliche Abteilung der Gewerbeschule Zwickau (SA) show Akzidenz-Grotesk, Stempel Sans, Wilhelm-Klingsporschrift and Metropolis. The latter is an Art Deco face designed by W. Schwerdtner (D. Stempel, 1928). The page about Die Städt. Handwerkerschule Breslau does not include any samples. The text is set in Zentenar with subtitles in a fat face (possibly Fette Antiqua). Neither does the page for the Arno Schmeisser Gewerbeschule Zwickau (SA). Its text is set in Wilhelm-Klingsporschrift combined with handlettered roman. A swastika hovers behind the heading, “Saar-Wettbewerb 1934” and the acronym N.S.L.B. (Nationalsozialistische Lehrerbund / National Socialist Teachers League) is emphasized. (Wikipedia says, “After the Nazi takeover of power in 1933 the Nazi Party validated the NSLB as the sole organization of teachers in the German Reich. In July 1935 the NSLB was merged with the existing organization of lecturers to form the
Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Dozentenbund (NSDDB) (National Socialist German University Lecturers League).”
It should be remembered that the typefaces in Satz- und Druck-Musterheft are all metal, either foundry or Linotype. Those that are shown in the school sections represent those that each school’s print shop had in stock.
This rest of this post is a census of the typefaces used in the advertisements in Satz- und Druck-Musterheft 1938. Many of them are identiﬁed in captions, but most are not. I have relied on the Encyclopedia of Typefaces by W. Pincus Jaspert, W. Turner Berry and A.F. Johnson (London: Cassell, 2008) and other English-language sources, but they are remarkably deﬁcient when it comes to German typefaces. Unfortunately, I don’t have a copy of Genzmer’s book from the 1930s. That would be the perfect source for this project.
Among the companies that advertised in Satz- und Druck-Musterheft 1938 are a number of typefoundries. They are Baeursche Giesserei, Gebr. Klingspor, D. Stempel AG, Schelter & Giesecke AG, Schriftguss KG (formerly Brüder Butter) and Mergenthaler Setzmaschinen-Fabrik GmbH. Bauer appears in several places in the annual. They have an advertisement on the back cover, several pages of type samples inside and a page devoted to their famous poster (in black-and-white), the Stammbaum der Schrift (Family Tree of Type), a famous poster created as part of the company’s centennial in 1937. And they provided the type (Schneidler-Initialen, Schneidler-Medieval and Legende) for the front cover. The advertisement on the back cover combines Legende and Futura. The sample pages are for Gotika (a stylized textura designed 1933 by Imre Reiner [1900–1987]), Renata with Weiss Initials, Weiss-Fraktur with Weiss-Schmuck (ornaments), Corvinus combined with Flott, and Element (the ﬁrst schaftstiefelgrotesk, designed in 1933 by Max Bittrof [1890–1972]). Reiner was another student of Schneidler’s.
Gebr. Klingspor contributed type specimens for typefaces designed by Walter Tiemann (1876–1951). They are both roman (Orpheus and Orpheus-Kursiv, Tiemann-Antiqua, Tiemann-Medieval) and blackletter (Kleist-Fraktur, Fichte-Fraktur and Tiemann-Gotisch). Other faces by Tiemann (Peter Schlemihl, Narziss and Daphne) are simply listed. Surprisingly, Klingspor’s preeminent type designer, Rudolf Koch, is not promoted.
D. Stempel AG contributed specimen pages for Deutsche Werkschrift (a fraktur by Koch), Tannenberg (a schaftstiefelgrotesk by Erich Meyer) and Memphis (by Rudolf Wolf); and separate four-page sections for Gotenburg and Schmale Tannenberg. The latter, titled “Die schöne deutsche Schrift”, paired Schmale Tannenberg variously with Breitkopf-Fraktur, Bodoni, an unidentiﬁed egyptian (perhaps Schelter-Egyptienne), and Venus-Grotesk. The insert for Gotenburg, designed by Friedrich Heinrichsen (like Meyer, a Koch student), promotes it as the “truest German typeface”:
Leitgedanke bei Schaffung de Gotenburg war: Deutscher Wertarbeit zu leisten.
Wir sind der Überzeugung, in der Gotenburg eine neue gotische Schrift geschaffen zu haben, die nicht nur heute als gegenwartsnah empfunden wird, sondern auch für die Zukunft eine hohe Leistung deutscher Schriftkunst darstellt und bleibenden Wert hat. Sie steht auf dem Grunde der Überlieferung und ist zugleich ein neuzeitlicher Ausdruck des gotischen Schriftstils.
Gotenburg die echt deutsche Schrift.
The main idea behind the design of Gotenburg was to achieve high-class German workmanship.
We believe that we have created a new blackletter with Gotenburg which we perceive as timely for today. It also demonstrates the great achievement of German typeface design for the future and will be a typeface of permanent value.
It is based on tradition and, at the same time, a modern expression of the blackletter style. Gotenburg, the genuine German typeface.
Gotenburg is a simpliﬁed textura, but it is not a schaftstiefelgrotesk.
Mergenthaler Setzmaschinen-Fabrik GmbH, commonly known as German Linotype, provides the largest showing of typefaces with a page each for the following blackletters: Linotype Deutsche Werkschrift, Linotype-Unger-Fraktur, Linotype-Breitkopf-Fraktur, Linotype-Luthersche-Fraktur, Linotype-Tannenberg, Linotype-Heinz-König-Schmalschrift (a schwabacher), Linotype-Koch-Fraktur, Linotype-Ehmcke-Schwabacher; and a page each for the following romans: Linotype-Original-Baskerville, Linotype-Garamond (Stempel Garamond not Garamond no. 3), Linotype-Bodoni, Linotype-Ratio-Lateina [sic], Linotype-Neue-Romanisch (Times Roman), Linotype-Excelsior and Linotype-Memphis. The text introducing the showings is set in Linotype-Unger-Fraktur.
Schelter & Giesecke AG of Leipzig provided a small insert (“Deutsch das Land, Deutsch die Schrift”—German the Country, German the Type) dedicated to Standarte (a schaftstiefelgrotesk), shown alongside Parcival, Saskia (by Jan Tschichold) and Super-Grotesk. It precedes the most fascinating—and also the most elaborate—of the type specimens, “Fraktur oder Antiqua” from Schriftguss K.-G. (Brüder Butter) of Dresden. This is a double gatefold with the inside left side dedicated to Fraktur (symbolized by a pine tree) and the inside right side to Antiqua (symbolized by classical columns). This is the same dichotomy which Koch had illustrated in Die Schriftgiesserei im Schattenbild (Typefoundry in Silhouette) (Offenbach am Main: Klingspor, 1918). The front pairs blackletter and roman typefaces in a chronological order, thus matching Bodoni with Unger-Fraktur and National, a schaftstiefelgrotesk, with Super-Grotesk, a geometric sans serif. Inside the fonts displayed are blackletters National (“die neue deutsche Schrift!”), National schräg, Unger-Fraktur, Wieynck-Gotisch, Thannhaeuser-Schrift; romans Bodoni, Härtel-Antiqua, Divina, Lido, Appell, Energos, Diamant, Luxor and Super-Grotesk; and scripts Splendor and Originell.
The last page of the insert states, “Nicht Fraktur oder Antiqua sondern Fraktur und Antiqua. Beide werden in der täglichen Praxis benötigt—beide bieten wir Ihnen in neuzeitlichen Schnitten.” (“Not Fraktur or Roman but Fraktur and Roman. Both are necessary in day-to-day practice—we offer both to you in modern styles.” The last part refers to National and Super-Grotesk, a Futura copy.
The non-foundry advertisers are: color manufacturers (dyes, paints, inks, etc.) I.G. Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft-Agfa, Springer & Möller AG (sponsor of the Berufschule für das graphische Gewerbe Berlin pages), Berger & Wirth Farbenfabriken, Chr. Hostmann-Steinberg’sche Farbenfabriken, Gebr. Schmidt GmbH (with three advertisements, one designed by Goovaerts), Beit & Co. Chemische- und Farbenfabriken (2 advertisements), E.T. Gleitsmann, Schramm AG Druckfarben-Fabrik, Jänecke-Schneemann KG Druckfabriken, Deutsche Druckfarbenfabrik Zulch & Dr. Sckerl, and Kast & Ehinger GmbH Druckfarbenfabriken; printing press manufacturers Schnellpressenfabrik Koenig & Bauer AG, Chn. Mansfeld Maschinenfabrik, Koebau-Sturmvogel RE, and Karl Krause Maschinenfabrik, Planeta (manufacturer of offset printing presses celebrating its 40th anniversary); paper manufacturers Dresdner Chromo-und Kunstdruckpapierfabrik, Krause & Baumann A.G., Heidenau Bez. Dresden, Gebr. Ebart G.m.b.H., and Freiberger Papierfabrik zu Weißenborn; and printers Druckerei-Gesellschaft Hartung & Co., Deutscher Buchgewerbe-Verein of Leipzig, and Richard Petersen Grossbuchdruckerei. There are also advertisements by Beckmann-Verfahren D.R.P. and Kodak AG. The breakdown of typefaces used is:
sans serif handlettering (2)
Weiss-Antiqua with Kursiv
an unidentiﬁed egyptian (1)
an unidentiﬁed egyptian italic (1)
an unidentiﬁed condensed egyptian (1)
an unidentiﬁed Englische Schreibschrift (1)
an unidentiﬁed script (1)
It is quite evident that blackletter and roman typefaces not only co-existed in German graphic design in 1938, but that they were consciously paired. Schaftstiefelgrotesks, although promoted heavily by the typefoundries, took a backseat to more traditional frakturs and texturas, both older designs and new ones such as Kleist-Fraktur and Zentenar. And when schaftstiefelgrotesks were used, they were often joined to geometric sans serifs in an attempt to project an air of modernity. Geometric sans serifs, especially Futura, continued to thrive. Among seriffed faces, the most popular were Bodoni and Baskerville.