Blue Pencil no. 22—Zapfiana no. 3: Works and Typefaces
The publication of About More Alphabets by Jerry Kelly spurred me to create this third Zapﬁana post which lists books by and about Hermann Zapf and typefaces by him (as well as pirated copies by others). The latter is, unfortunately, incomplete as gathering information on them has been very difﬁcult. But it is a task that needs to be done.
Last updated 13 December 2012.
This is a list of the most important texts by and about Hermann Zapf arranged in chronological order. For a fuller bibliography—though limited to works published before 1983—see Hermann Zapf and His Design Philosophy, pp. 113–124 and Hermann Zapf. Hora fugit—Carpe diem. Ein Arbeitsbericht, pp. 122–168. Titles marked in red are the most relevant for understanding Zapf as a type designer.
Feder und Stichel
Frankfurt: D. Stempel AG, 1949
Calligraphic alphabets and texts; engraved by August Rosenberger.
Pen and Graver
New York: Museum Books, 1952
English language edition of Feder und Stichel.
New York: Museum Books, 1954
Typographic layout of texts and alphabets in an oblong format.
German edition published by D. Stempel AG (Frankfurt), 1954.
About Alphabets: Some Marginal Notes on Type Design
New York: The Typophiles, 1960
Typophiles Chapbook XXXVII
Contains a nearly complete showing of Zapf’s pre-1960 typefaces (missing are Narrow Linotype Aldus, Magnus, and Linotype Mergenthaler), a list of each typeface with dates of creation and release, and a list of Zapf’s writings to that point. Typography by Zapf. Set in Optima.
Hermann Zapf, calligrapher, type designer and typographer: An exhibition arranged and circulated by the Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, Ohio
Noel Martin with chronlogy by Paul Standard
Cincinnati: Contemporary Arts Center, 1960
This is a 62 pp. catalogue for the Cincinnati venue of a traveling shows of Zapf’s work. Also see the 39 pp. Brussels exhibition catalogue below.
Schrift- en drukkunst van Hermann Zapf / Calligraphie et typographie de Hermann Zapf
Catalogue no. 8
Herman Liebaers. Translation by Nicole Tassoul
Brussels: Bibliothèque Albert I, Bruxelles, 1962
Das Blumen ABC
Hermann Zapf and August Rosenberger
Frankfurt am Main: D. Stempel, 1962
Hermann Zapf with prefaces by Paul Standard, G. K. Schauer, and Charles Peignot
New York, Museum Books, 1964
Typographic designs for books, catalogues, etc.
German edition published by D. Stempel AG (Frankfurt), 1963.
Hunt Roman: The Birth of a Type
Commentary and Notes by Hermann Zapf and Jack Werner Stauffacher
Pittsburgh: The Pittsburgh Bibliophiles, 1965
Hunt Roman was designed by Zapf for the Rachel McMasters Miller Hunt Botanical Library at Carnegie Institute of Technology (now the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation at Carnegie Mellon University) in Pittsburgh.
Frankfurt: Z-Presse, 1968
A second selection of typographic layouts, this time in a vertical format.
Hallmark Lettering Instruction Book
Kansas City, Missouri: Hallmark Cards, 1968–1970
Printed for internal Hallmark Cards use only.
About Alphabets: Some marginal notes on type design
Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The MIT Press, 1970
Contains an updated list of typefaces and an updated bibliography.
Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: The MIT Press, 1970
Reprint of the oblong 1954 Manuale Typographicum.
Hermann Zapf with prefaces by Paul Standard, G. K. Schauer, and Charles Peignot
New Rochelle, New York: Myriade Press, 1978
Orbis Typographicus: Thoughts, Words and Phrases on the Arts and Sciences
Prairie Village, Kansas: The Crabgrass Press, 1980
Hermann Zapf: Ein Arbeitsbericht Herausgegeben von der Lehrdruckerei der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt
Walter Wilkes, ed.
Hamburg: Maximilian-Gesellschaft, 1984
Contains a newer list of Zapf’s typefaces than the one in the MIT Press reprint of About Alphabets.
Kreatives Schreiben: Anleitungen und Alphabete: Ein neuartiges Instruktionsbuch zum Erlernen künstlerischer Schrift
Hamburg: Rotring-Werke Riepe KG, 1985
Also published in English as Creative Calligraphy: Instructions and Alphabets, in French as Calligraphies creatives and in Spanish as Calligraﬁa creadora.
Euler Project at Stanford
David R. Siegel
Stanford, California: Department of Computer Science, Stanford University, 1985
This is a booklet rather than a book, but it is still an important part of Zapf’s typeface bibliography.
Hermann Zapf and His Design Philosophy: Selected Articles and Lectures on Calligraphy and Contemporary Developments in Type Design, with Illustrations and Bibliographical Notes, and a Complete List of His Typefaces
Carl Zahn, intro.
Chicago: Society of Typographic Arts, 1987
Contains the last updated list of Zapf’s typefaces to be published.
ABC-XYZapf: Fifty years in alphabet design: Professional and personal contributions selected for Hermann Zapf
John Dreyfus and Knut Erichson, eds.
London: The Wynkyn de Worde Society and Offenbach: Bund Deutscher Buchkünstler, 1989
L’opera di Hermann Zapf : dalla calligrafia alla fotocomposizione : scritti, tavole e illustrazioni dell’artista
Preface by Bruno Munari
Verona: Stamperia Valdonega, 1991
From the Hand of Hermann Zapf: A collection of calligraphy, alphabet design and book typography
Julian Waters, ed.
Washington, DC: The Washington Calligraphers Guild, 1993
Poetry through Typography
New York: Kelly/Winterton Press, 1993
Sammlung Hermann Zapf, Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbuttel
Wolfenbüttel: Herzog August Bibliothek, 1993
This is a 168 pp. exhibition catalogue.
August Rosenberger 1893–1980
Rochester: Cary Graphic Arts Collection, 1996
The Fine Art of Letters: The Work of Hermann Zapf
Jerry Kelly, ed.
New York: The Grolier Club, 2000
Calligraphic Type Design in the Digital Age: An Exhibition in Honor of the Contributions of Hermann and Gudrun Zapf: Selected Type Designs and Calligraphy by Sixteen Designers
John Prestianni, ed.
Corte Madera, California: Gingko Press, 2001
The World of Alphabets by Hermann Zapf (CD-ROM)
Rochester: Melbert B. Cary, Jr. Graphic Arts Collection and Wolfenbüttel, Germany: Herzog August Bibliothek, 2001
Although still available from Linotype, this CD-ROM does not run on OSX!
Meister der Schrift, Hermann Zapf: Kalligraph, Schriftdesigner, Typograph, Buchgestalter: Ausstellung der Stadtbibliothek Nürnberg, 25. September 2002–10. Januar 2003
Nuremberg: Stadts Bibliothek Nürnberg, 2002
This is a 114 pp. exhibition catalogue.
Alphabet Stories: A Chronicle of Technical Developments
Bad Homburg, Germany: Mergenthaler Edition, Linotype GmbH and Rochester, New York: RIT Cary Graphic Arts Press, 2007
Jerry Kelly et al
Rochester: RIT Cary Graphic Arts Press, 2008
About More Alphabets
Jerry Kelly and Robert Bringhurst
Rochester: The Typophiles and RIT Cary Graphic Arts Press, 2011
Typophile Chap Book New Series no. 3
What Our Lettering Needs: The Contribution of Hermann Zapf to Calligraphy & Type Design at Hallmark Cards
Rochester: RIT Cary Graphic Arts Press, 2011
Zapf Exhibition: The Calligraphy of Gudrun and Hermann Zapf
Akira Kobayashi, Juzo Takaoka and Masao Takaoka
Tokyo: Japan Letter Arts Forum, 2011
Despite the title, typefaces by both Gudrun Zapf von Hesse and Hermann Zapf are included in this exhibition catalogue.
The information in this list has been gathered from the lists in About Alphabets (1960 and 1970), Hermann Zapf Arbeit (1984), Hermann Zapf and His Design Philosophy (1987), What Our Lettering Needs (2011), Modern Encyclopedia of Typefaces 1960–90 by Lawrence W. Wallis (New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1990) and various websites. Matthew Carter also provided some help on typefaces whose genesis is a bit murky in the above books. Frank Romano gave me some information and advice about pirated phototype faces.
The first date within the parentheses is the date of design while the last date is the date of release (except for those typefaces that, for various reasons, were never released). For some typefaces additional interim dates are included. The typefaces are listed in the chronological order of their release with those not released being inserted based on their date of execution.
W = wood, T = typewriter, F = foundry, M = machine composition (e.g. Linotype), P = photocomposition, and D = digital.
Antiqua = roman
Kursiv = italic
Halbfett = semibold or medium; but can sometimes be bold
Fette = bold
Mager = light
Enge = narrow
Schmalfett = bold condensed
Breite = wide
Grotesk = grotesque (sans serif)
Schattiert = shaded
Linien = rules
Zierlinien = decorative rules
Schmuck = ornament
Zeichen = signs
Plakatschrift = poster type
Griechisch = Greek
Arabisch = Arabic
Gilgengart (D. Stempel AG 1939; cut 1940; proof 1941; 1949) F
Alko Music note script (Barenreiter Verlag 1939; proof 1940; destroyed in 1945?) F
Music Antiqua with music notes (D. Stempel AG 1942–1943) F
Novalis (D. Stempel AG 1946; proof 1948) F
Novalis Kursiv and Halbfett (D. Stempel AG 1946; never proofed) F
Gilgengart Initials (cut in 48 pt by August Rosenberger 1949) F
Palatino (D. Stempel AG and Linotype GmbH 1948; shown in Feder und Stichel 1949; 1950)—originally Medici Antiqua F, M
Palatino Linotype Kursiv (Linotype GmbH 1948; shown in Gutenberg Jahrbuch 1948; 1950) M
Michelangelo Titling (D. Stempel AG 1949–1950; 1950) F
Festival Figures (D. Stempel AG 1948; 1950) F
Kalendar zeichen (1950; 1950)—zodiac signs and astronomical symbols. F
Gilgengart II (Linotype GmbH 1950; 1951)—a simplified version of Gilgengart. M
Palatino Kursiv (D. Stempel AG 1949–1950; 1951) F
Palatino Halbfett [Bold] (D. Stempel AG 1950; 1951) F
Sistina (D. Stempel AG 1950; 1951) F
Primavera Schmuck (D. Stempel AG 1948–1950; 1951)—released in two series, the first with 30 designs and the second with 12. F
Palatino Kursiv with Swash (D. Stempel AG 1952; 1952) F
Melior (D. Stempel AG and Linotype GmbH 1948–1949; shown in Hannoversche Presse 1952) F
Melior Kursiv (D. Stempel AG 1948–1949; 1952) F
Melior Halbfett [Bold] (D. Stempel AG 1948–1949; 1952) F
Virtuosa I (D. Stempel AG 1948–1949; 1952) F
Virtuosa II (D. Stempel AG 1950; 1953) F
Sistina (D. Stempel AG 1950; 1951)—originally called Aurelia Titling. F
Saphir [Sapphire] (D. Stempel 1950; 1952)—only cut in 20, 28 and 36 pt. F
Linotype Janson (Linotype GmbH 1951; 1952) M
Linotype Janson Kursiv (Linotype GmbH 1951; 1952) M
Melior Schmalfett (D. Stempel AG 1949; 1953) F
Sistina Plakatschrift (manufacturer unknown 1953; 1953) W
Englische Zierlinien (D. Stempel AG 1952–1953; 1953) F
Attika Greek (D. Stempel AG 1953; 1953)—designed to accompany Light Neuzeit Grotesk. F
Artemis Greek (D. Stempel AG 1953; 1953)—designed to accompany Demibold Neuzeit Grotesk. F
Phidias Greek (D. Stempel AG 1953; 1953)—designed to fill in and complement Michelangelo F
Attika Borders/Meander (D. Stempel AG 1952-1953; 1954) F
Frederika Greek (D. Stempel AG 1953; 1954)—designed to accompany Virtuosa. F
Heraklit Greek (D. Stempel AG 1953; 1954)—designed to accompany Renaissance antiqua typefaces F
Linotype Aldus (Linotype GmbH 1952–1953; 1954)—designed originally as Palatino Book for Linotype matrices. F
Linotype Aldus Kursiv (Linotype GmbH 1952–1953; 1954) F
Kompakt (D. Stempel AG 1952; 1954) F
Linotype Mergenthaler Antiqua (Linotype GmbH 1953; 1954)—cut only in 6–10 pt. M
Linotype Mergenthaler Kursiv (Linotype GmbH 1953; 1954) M
Linotype Mergenthaler Halbfett (Linotype GmbH 1953; 1954) M
Janson Antiqua (D. Stempel AG 1952; 1954)—only cut in 24 pt and 48 pt sizes. F
Janson Kursiv (D. Stempel AG 1952; 1954)—only cut in 24 pt and 48 pt sizes. F
Künstler Linien (D. Stempel AG 1954; 1955) F
Kräftige Virtuosa [Virtuosa Bold] (D. Stempel AG 1954; 1956) F
Alahram Arabisch (D. Stempel AG 1954; 1956) F
Alahram Arabisch Schattiert (D. Stempel AG 1954; 1957) F
Trajanus Cyrillic (D. Stempel AG 1957; 1957)—cut in 6, 8, 9 and 10 pt sizes. F
Trajanus Cyrillic Kursiv (D. Stempel AG 1957; 1957)—cut in 6, 8, 9 and 10 pt sizes. F
Trajanus Cyrillic Halbfett (D. Stempel AG 1957; 1957)—cut in 6, 8, 9 and 10 pt sizes. F
Optima (D. Stempel AG 1952–1955; 1958)—originally called Neu Antiqua. F
Optima Kursiv (D. Stempel AG 1954–1955; 1958) F
Optima Halbfett [Bold] (D. Stempel AG 1954–1955; 1958) F
Magnus Sans Serif (Linotype & Machinery, Ltd. 1956-1958; 12 pt trial size 1957; 1960)—originally named ≤I>Britannica. F
Magnus Italic (Linotype & Machinery, Ltd. 1956-1958; cut in steel) F
Magnus Bold (Linotype & Machinery, Ltd. 1956-1958; cut in steel) F
[About Alphabets (p. 110) says that Magnus Sans Serif, Magnus Italic and Magnus Bold were all released in 1960, but Hermann Zapf and His Design Philosophy (p. 129) says that none of them were issued.]
Enge Linotype Aldus (Linotype GmbH 1959–1960; 1960)—developed in conjunction with Rowohlt Publishing for use in pocket books. M
Enge Linotype Aldus Kursiv (Linotype GmbH 1959–1960; 1960) M
Linofilm Palatino (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1962; 1963) P
Linofilm Palatino Italic (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1962; 1963) P
Linofilm Palatino Bold (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1962; 1963) P
Hunt Roman (D. Stempel AG 1961–1963; 1963)—cut by Arthur Ritzel in 12, 14, 18 and 24 pt; designed for the Rachel McMasters Miller Hunt Botanical Library. F
Linofilm Melior (Mergenthaler Linotype Co. 1965–1966; 1966) P
Linofilm Melior Italic (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1965–1966; 1966) P
Linofilm Melior Bold (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1965–1966; 1966) P
Hallmark Jeannette Script (Hallmark Cards 1966–1967; 1967)—based on the handwriting of Jeannette Lee. P
[All of Zapf’s typefaces for Hallmark Cards were designed for use on Alphatype phototypesetting machines. See What Our Lettering Needs.]
Optima Medium (D. Stempel AG 1963–1966; 1967)—issued with an “electronic cursive”. P
Optima Black (D. Stempel AG 1963–1966; 1967)—issued with an “electronic cursive”. P
[Stempel did not produce typefaces for photocomposition. Presumably Zapf has listed them as the manufacturer because the base design for Optima originated with them. But these faces were probably issued by Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. See Hermann Zapf and His Design Philosophy (p. 129).]
Hallmark Firenze (Hallmark Cards, Inc. 1967–1968; 1968) P
Linofilm Venture (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1960–1967; 1969) P
Optima Medium Italic (D. Stempel AG 1963–1966; 1969) F
Hallmark Textura (Hallmark Cards, Inc. 1968–1969; 1969) P
Melior Bold Italic (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1969; 1969) M
Hallmark Uncial (Hallmark Cards, Inc. 1969; 1970) P
Hallmark Winchester (Hallmark Cards, Inc. 1970; 1970)—created by combining the small capitals of Hallmark Uncial with the lowercase of Hallmark Textura. P
Hallmark Charlemagne (Hallmark Cards, Inc. 1970; 1970)—created by combining the capitals of Hallmark Uncial with the lowercase of Gudrun Zapf’s Shakespeare (Hallmark Cards, Inc. 1967; 1967). P
Hallmark Stratford (Hallmark Cards, Inc. 1970; 1970)—created by combining the lowercase of Hallmark Textura with the capitals of Shakespeare. P
Linofilm Medici (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1969; 1971)—more familiarly known as Medici Script. P
Optima Greek (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1971; 1971)—executed by Matthew Carter based on 48 pt drawings by Zapf; intended for use on the Linofilm VIP phototypesetter launched in 1970. P
Missouri (Hallmark Cards, Inc. 1970–1971; 1971) P
Scriptura (Hallmark Cards, Inc. 1968–1972; 1972) P
Arno (Hallmark Cards, Inc. 1972; 1972)—roman capitals to accompany Firenze P
Crown Antiqua (Hallmark Cards, Inc. 1969–1970; 1972) P
Crown Italic (Hallmark Cards, Inc. 1969–1970; 1972) P
Orion (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1963–1971; 1974) P
Orion Italic (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1971; 1974) P
Optima Greek Italic (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1971; 1974) P
Optima Greek Halbfett [Bold] (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1971; 1974) P
World Book Modern (World Book, Inc. 1973; 1975)—originally called University Textface. Derived from Optima; with an electronic cursive. P
World Book Medium (World Book, Inc. 1974; 1975)—originally called University Medium. With an electronic cursive. P
World Book Semi-Bold (World Book, Inc. 1974; 1975)—originally called University Semi-Bold. With an electronic cursive. P
[The difference between the medium and the semibold is unclear. See Hermann Zapf and His Design Philosophy (p. 132).]
World Book Heavy (World Book, Inc. 1974; 1975)—originally called University Heavy. With an electronic cursive. P
Marconi (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1973; 1976) D
Marconi Halbfett (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1974; 1976) D
Marconi Halbfett Kursiv (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1974; 1976) D
Marconi Kursiv (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1974; 1976) D
Noris Script (D. Stempel AG and Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1971-1975; 1976) P
Comenius Antiqua (H. Berthold AG 1972–1973; 1976) P
Comenius Kursiv (H. Berthold AG 1972–1973; 1976) P
ITC Zapf Book Light (International Typeface Corporation 1970–1975; 1976) P
ITC Zapf Book Light Italic (International Typeface Corporation 1972–1975; 1976) P
ITC Zapf Medium (International Typeface Corporation 1970–1975; 1976) P
ITC Zapf Book Medium Italic (International Typeface Corporation 1972–1975; 1976) P
ITC Zapf Book Demi (International Typeface Corporation 1975; 1976) P
ITC Zapf Book Demi Italic (International Typeface Corporation 1975; 1976) P
ITC Zapf Book Heavy (International Typeface Corporation 1975; 1976) P
ITC Zapf Book Heavy Italic (International Typeface Corporation 1975; 1976) P
Optima Classified (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1976; 1976)—based on Optima Medium; executed by Matthew Carter. P
ITC Zapf International Light (International Typeface Corporation 1974–1976; 1977) P
ITC Zapf International Light Italic (International Typeface Corporation 1976; 1977) P
ITC Zapf International Medium (International Typeface Corporation 1974–1976; 1977) P
ITC Zapf International Medium Italic (International Typeface Corporation 1976; 1977) P
ITC Zapf International Demi (International Typeface Corporation 1976; 1977) P
ITC Zapf International Demi Italic (International Typeface Corporation 1976; 1977) P
ITC Zapf International Heavy (International Typeface Corporation 1976; 1977) P
ITC Zapf International Light Italic Swash (International Typeface Corporation 1976; 1977) P
ITC Zapf International Heavy Italic (International Typeface Corporation 1976; 1977) P
ITC Zapf International Medium Italic Swash (International Typeface Corporation 1976; 1977) P
ITC Zapf International Demi Italic Swash (International Typeface Corporation 1976; 1977) P
ITC Zapf International Heavy Italic Swash (International Typeface Corporation 1976; 1977) P
Comenius Bold (H. Berthold AG 1974; 1977) P
Comenius Heavy (H. Berthold AG 1975; 1977) P
[The digital versions are described as Comenius Antiqua Medium and Comenius Antiqua Bold respectively as part of the Comenius BE Antiqua volume.]
Linofilm Palatino Kursiv Fett (Mergenthaler Linotype Corp. 1977; 1977) P
ITC Zapf Dingbats 100 (International Typeface Corporation 1977; 1978) P
ITC Zapf Dingbats 200 (International Typeface Corporation 1977; 1978) P
ITC Zapf Dingbats 300 (International Typeface Corporation 1977; 1978) P
Edison Text (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1976; 1978) D
Edison Kursiv (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1976; 1978) D
Edison Halbfett (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1976; 1978) D
Edison Halbfett Kursiv (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1977; 1978) D
Edison Schmalfett (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1978; 1978) D
ITC Zapf Chancery Light (International Typeface Corporation 1977–1978; 1979) P
ITC Zapf Chancery Medium (International Typeface Corporation 1977–1978; 1979) P
ITC Zapf Chancery Demi (International Typeface Corporation 1977–1978; 1979) P
ITC Zapf Chancery Bold (International Typeface Corporation 1977–1978; 1979) P
ITC Zapf Chancery Light Italic (International Typeface Corporation 1977–1978; 1979) P
ITC Zapf Chancery Medium Italic (International Typeface Corporation 1977–1978; 1979) P
Edison Cyrillic (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1981; 1982) D
Digiset Vario (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1978–1980; 1982)—with an electronic cursive available on the Digiset machine. D
Zapf Civilité (The Private Press and Typefoundry of Paul Hayden Duensing 1971–1974; 1983)—derived from calligraphy in Pen and Graver (pp. 22–23). M; Michael Anderson now owns the matrices which Duensing cut pantographically.
AMS Euler Text (American Mathematical Society 1980–1981; 1983) D
AMS Euler Greek (American Mathematical Society 1980–1981; 1983) D
AMS Euler Script (American Mathematical Society 1980–1981; 1983) D
AMS Euler Fraktur (American Mathematical Society 1980–1981; 1983) D
AMS Euler Text Bold (American Mathematical Society 1980–1981; 1983) D
AMS Euler Greek Bold (American Mathematical Society 1980–1981; 1983) D
AMS Euler Script Bold (American Mathematical Society 1980–1981; 1983) D
AMS Euler Fraktur Bold (American Mathematical Society 1980–1981; 1983) D
[The AMS Euler family was created in collaboration with Donald E. Knuth of the Department of Computer Science, Stanford University using Metafont, his computer-assisted design system.]
Aurelia Antiqua (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1980–1981; 1983) D
Aurelia Kursiv (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1981; 1983) D
Sequoya (University of Wisconsin at Madison 1974–1977; 1984)—a Cherokee typeface commissioned by Walter Hamady. M Jim Escalante, a graduate student working with Hamady in 1981, recalls that Paul Hayden Duensing was supposed to do the casting of the typeface but whether it actually got done is a mystery. Attempts to get information from Hamady and his colleagues were unsuccessful.
Pan Nigerian (Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education 1983; 1985) F
[Pan-Nigerian, developed with the collaboration of Victor Bartolo Manfredi of Harvard University and the University of Nigeria, adapts roman letters for Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba and six other languages spoken in Nigeria. The design, cast by Fundición Tipográfica Neufville S.A., is based on Impressum by Konrad F. Bauer and Walter Baum (Bauer/Neufville 1963).]
Pan Nigerian Sans Serif (Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education 1983; postponed)
Pan Nigerian Typewriter Face (Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education 1983; 1985)—manufactured by Olivetti. T
Pan Nigerian School Handwriting (Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education 1983; in progress as of 1987)—no further information on its fate.
Aurelia Mager (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1982; 1985) D
Aurelia Kursiv Mager (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1982; 1985) D
Aurelia Halbfett [Bold] (Dr. Ing. Rudolf Hell GmbH 1982; 1985) D
Zapf Renaissance Antiqua (Scangraphic Dr. Böger GmbH 1984; 1985)—a new interpretation of Palatino designed for the Scantext 1000, a digital CRT phototypesetting system. D
Zapf Renaissance Italic (Scangraphic Dr. Böger GmbH 1984; 1985)—with small caps. D
Zapf Renaissance Italic Swashes (Scangraphic Dr. Böger GmbH 1984–1985; 1985) D
URW Roman 2015 Light (URW Unternehmensberatung Karow Rubow Weber GmbH 1984; 1985)—based on Century by Linn Boyd Benton and Theodore Low De Vinne (American Type Founders, 1894); developed for use with the Ikarus system, a computer-aided design program. D
URW Roman 2039 Extra Bold (URW 1984; 1985) D
URW Sans Serif 2012 Light (URW 1985; 1985)—the capital letters follow the proportios of the Trajan inscription; developed for use with the Ikarus sytem. D
URW Sans Serif 2031 Extra Bold (URW 1985; 1985) D
Zapf Renaissance Antiqua Light (Scangraphic Dr. Böger GmbH 1985; 1986)—with small caps. D
Zapf Renaissance Light Italic (Scangraphic Dr. Böger GmbH 1985; 1986)—with small caps. D
Zapf Renaissance Light Italic with Swashes (Scangraphic Dr. Böger GmbH 1985; 1986) D
Zapf Renaissance Bold (Scangraphic Dr. Böger GmbH 1985; 1986) D
URW Roman 2034 Extra Bold Italic (URW 1985–1986; 1986) D
URW Roman 2014 Light Italic (URW 1986; 1986) D
URW Sans Serif 2011 Light Italic (URW 1986; 1986) D
URW Sans Serif 2030 Extra Bold Italic (URW 1986; 1986) D
URW Sans Serif 2008 Narrow Light (URW 1986; 1986) D
URW Sans Serif 2019 Narrow Bold (URW 1986; 1986) D
URW Sans Serif 2008 Narrow Light Italic (URW 1986; 1986) D
URW Sans Serif 2018 Narrow Bold Italic (URW 1986; 1986) D
[The numbering system for URW Roman and URW Sans Serif indicate the percentage, in the metric system, of the stem width to the capital height.]
[This list is missing information about legitimate digital versions of Palatino from Adobe and other suppliers in the 1980s. Dates of digitization are needed. The Adobe version was ostensibly based on the Linotype version of Palatino made in the 1960s for phototypesetting which implies the Linoﬁlm version. It was supposedly adjusted later, but by who and when? Palatino 1 was available (with PostScript System 7) in light, medium and heavy weights. Palatino 2 (PostScript type 1 format) was interpolated from Palatino 1. It was available from Adobe, Linotype, Monotype and Agfa.]
[Butler says that the GX version of Palatino, available with System 7.5 (1995) was made by Linotype-Hell AG. It came with Ariadne Initials as swash capitals instead of Palatino swash caps.]
AT&T Garamond Condensed (AT&T 1987) P
AT&T Garamond Book (AT&T 19867) P
AT&T Garamond Book Small Caps (AT&T 1987) P
AT&T Garamond Book Italic (AT&T 1987) P
AT&T Garamond Book Italic Small Caps (AT&T 1987) P
AT&T Garamond Bold (AT&T 1987) P
AT&T Garamond Bold Small Caps (AT&T 1987) P
AT&T Garamond Bold Italic (AT&T 1987) P
AT&T Garamond Bold Italic Small Caps (AT&T 1987) P
AT&T Garamond Book Condensed (AT&T 1987) P
AT&T Garamond Book Condensed Small Caps (AT&T 1987) P
AT&T Garamond Bold Condensed (AT&T 1987) P
AT&T Garamond Bold Condensed Small Caps (AT&T 1987) P
[Little information on this commission has been published. Zapf apparently received the job through Saul Bass who had recently redesigned the AT&T logo in the wake of the Bell System in 1984. However, it is not mentioned in Saul Bass: A Life in Film & Design by Jennifer Bass and Pat Kirkham (London: Laurence King Publishing, 2011). Several unusual ligatures designed for this typeface are shown on p. 163 of ABC-XYZapf. The weights listed have been derived from an undated specimen book labeled AT&T Garamond from Graphic Technology, a New York City type house. The specimen calls it AT&T Garamond Book. This information was graciously provided by Peter Bain who suggests that some of the weights might be camera modiﬁcations.]
Linotype Zapfino (Linotype GmbH 1998)
Zapf Essentials (Linotype GmbH 2002)—372 glyphs vs. original 360 in ITC Zapf Dingbats; in six groups: Arrows One, Arrows Two, Communication, Ofﬁce, Markers and Ornaments. D
Linotype Zapfino Extra (Linotype GmbH 2003; with Akira Kobayashi)—also extra long characters. D
Optima Nova family (Linotype GmbH 2002; with Akira Kobayashi)—light, light italic, regular, italic, medium, medium italic, bold, bold italic; with Optima Nova Condensed (light, light italic, regular, italic, medium, medium italic, demi, demi italic, bold, bold italic) and Optima Nova Titling Initials. Originally, the family had separate fonts for oldstyle figures and small caps, but they are all together in the Pro version. D
Palatino Nova family [including Aldus Nova 2005] (Linotype GmbH 2005; with Akira Kobayashi)—light, light italic, regular, italic, medium, medium italic, bold, bold italic), Palatino Titling (formerly Michelangelo) and Palatino Imperial (formerly Sistina); with Aldus Nova (book, book italic, bold, bold italic). D
Palatino Arabic (Linotype GmbH 2007; with Nadine Chahine). D
[The design of Palatino Arabic is based on Zapf’s Al-Ahram typeface (1956), but reworked and modiﬁed to ﬁt the Palatino Nova family. The design is Naskh in style but with some Thuluth influence. It is only available in one weight.]
Palatino Sans family (Linotype GmbH 2006; with Akira Kobayashi)—an informal companion to Palatino. The family consists of Palatino Sans (ultra light, ultra light italic, light, light italic, regular, italic, medium, medium italic, bold, bold italic); Palatino Informal (ultra light, ultra light italic, light, light italic, regular, italic, medium, medium italic, bold, bold italic) and Palatino Sans Arrows. D
Virtuosa Classic (Linotype GmbH 2009; with Akira Kobayashi)—a redesign and merger of Virtuosa I and II. D
Palatino Sans Arabic (Linotype GmbH 2011; with Nadine Chahine)—regular and bold. In Naskh style. D
DIGITAL ZAPF TYPEFACES TODAY
As of 2012 Linotype GmbH offers these Zapf fonts for sale:
Aldus STD—Roman and Italic.
Aldus Nova Pro—Book, Book Italic, Bold and Bold Italic.
URW Antiqua (credited to the URW Studio 1986, not to Zapf)—2015 Regular, SC 2015 Regular, Oblique, 2015 Regular Italic, 2020 Medium, Medium Oblique, 2020 Medium Italic, 2025 Bold, Bold Oblique, 2025 Bold Italic, 2031 Extra Bold, Extra Bold Oblique, 2031 Extra Bold Italic, 2036 Ultra Bold, Ultra Bold Oblique, 2036 Ultra Bold Italic, 2039 Super, Alternative 2039 Super, Alternative 2039 Super Italic, 2039 Super Italic, 2015 Regular Condensed, SC 2015 Regular Condensed, Narrow, Narrow Oblique, Medium Narrow, Medium Narrow Oblique, Bold Narrow, Bold Narrow Oblique, Extra Bold Narrow, Extra Bold Narrow Oblique, Ultra Bold Narrow, Ultra Bold Narrow Oblique, Extra Narrow, Extra Narrow Oblique, Medium Extra Narrow, Medium Extra Narrow Oblique, Bold Extra Narrow, Bold Extra Narrow Oblique, Extra Bold Extra Narrow, Extra Bold Extra Narrow Oblique, Ultra Bold Extra Narrow, Ultra Bold Extra Narrow Oblique, Wide, Wide Oblique, Medium Wide, Medium Wide Oblique, Bold Wide, Bold Wide Oblique, Extra Bold Wide, Extra Bold Wide Oblique, Ultra Bold Wide, Ultra Bold Wide Oblique, Extra Wide, Extra Wide Oblique, Medium Extra Wide, Medium Extra Wide Oblique, Bold Extra Wide, Bold Extra Wide Oblique, Extra Bold Extra Wide, Extra Bold Extra Wide Oblique, Ultra Bold Extra Wide, Ultra Bold Extra Wide Oblique—plus CE versions of each; Cyrillic Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic—130 fonts in all.
Aurelia—Light, Light Italic, Book, Book Italic and Bold
Comenius BE Antiqua STD—Regular, Italic (with the original w), Medium and Bold.
Comenius BQ Antiqua STD—Regular, Italic (with the original w), Medium and Bold.
Comenius Antiqua Pro—Regular, Italic (with a redesigned italic w in the style of the v), Medium and Bold. These are all Comenius Antiqua BE even though BE is not part of each font’s name.
Comenius Antiqua BQ Pro—Regular, Italic (with the new w), Medium and Bold.
Edison—Book, Book Italic, Semi Bold, Semi Bold Italic and Bold Condensed—Linotype incorrectly says the typeface was designed in 1978.
URW Grotesk T [not called Sans] (credited to Zapf, 1985)—Extra Light, Extra Light Oblique, Light, SC Light, Light Oblique, Light Italic, Regular, SC Regular, Oblique, Regular Italic, Medium, Medium Oblique, Medium Italic, Bold, Bold Oblique, Bold Italic, Extra Light Condensed, Light Condensed, Bold Condensed, Extra Light Narrow, Extra Light Narrow Oblique, Light Narrow, Light Narrow Oblique, Narrow, Narrow Oblique, Medium Narrow, Medium Narrow Oblique, Bold Narrow, Bold Narrow Oblique, Extra Light Extra Narrow, Extra Light Extra Narrow Oblique, Light Extra Narrow, Light Extra Narrow Oblique, Extra Narrow, Extra Narrow Oblique, Medium Extra Narrow, Medium Extra Narrow Oblique, Bold Extra Narrow, Bold Extra Narrow Oblique, Extra Light Wide, Extra Light Wide Oblique, Light Wide, Light Wide Oblique, Wide, Wide Oblique, Medium Wide, Bold Wide, Bold Wide Oblique, Medium Wide Oblique, Extra Light Extra Wide, Extra Light Extra Wide Oblique, Light Extra Wide, Light Extra Wide Oblique, Extra Wide, Extra Wide Oblique, Medium Extra Wide, Medium Extra Wide Oblique, Bold Extra Wide, Bold Extra Wide Oblique, CE versions for all plus Cyrillic for Regular, Regular Italic, Bold and Bold Italic—121 fonts in all.
Marconi—Book, Book Italic, Semi Bold, Semi Bold Italic—says designed 1976!
Melior [STD]—Roman, Italic, Bold and Bold Italic. [In the search for Melior on the Linotype website URW Latino, a clone or pirated version, comes up! Its family includes Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Black—but no Regular!]
Optima [STD]—Roman, Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Demi Bold, Demi Bold Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Black, Black Italic, Extra Black and Extra Black Italic—1958 design date
Optima Nova Pro—Light, Light Italic, Regular, Regular Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Demi, Demi Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Heavy, Heavy Italic, Black, Black Italic, Condensed Light, Condensed Regular, Condensed Medium, Condensed Demi, Condensed Bold and Titling [which is incorrectly attributed on the website to Adrian Frutiger, Linotype Design Studio, Kobayashi and Hermann Zapf, 2002].
URW Classico—Regular, Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Bold, Bold Italic and Black.
[This clone of Optima is described as having been designed by Zapf in 1990. Given that Zapf was working with URW on URW Grotesk and URW Sans, it is very possible that he helped them copy his Optima. It is information such as this that needs to be veriﬁed and added to the story of Zapf’s type designs.]
Oblik Classic (Slobodan Jelesijevic, 2010)—Light, Light Italic, Regular, Regular Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Black and Black Italic.
[This is not a rip-off of Optima but a take-off on it. Oblik Classic has a different x-height and the strokes have no tapering. Many of its features suggest Cassandre’s Peignot.]
Orion Pro—Roman and Italic. [Despite the Pro appellation, there is nothing obviously new in Orion Pro compared to its Linoﬁlm version.]
Palatino STD—Light, Light Italic, Regular, Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Black and Black Italic. [Described as being designed by Zapf in 1986.]
Palatino Linotype W1G—Roman, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic. [Described as having been designed by Zapf in 1950. Is this based on the German Linotype version or the Stempel foundry version?]
Palatino Nova Pro—Light, Light Italic, Regular, Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Imperial and Titling.
Palatino Sans—Ultra Light, Informal Ultra Light, Ultra Light Italic, Informal Ultra Light Italic, Light, Informal Light, Light Italic, Informal Light Italic, Regular, Informal Regular, Italic, Informal Italic, Medium, Informal Medium, Medium Italic, Informal Medium Italic, Bold, Informal Bold, Bold Italic and Informal Bold Italic.
Palatino Sans Arabic—Regular and Bold. [Credited to Hermann Zapf, Nadine Chahine, and Akira Kobayashi, 2010.]
URW Palladio—Regular, Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Bold and Bold Italic.
[Described as designed by Zapf in 1990. This could be the same situation as URW Classico. Palladio is routinely cited as one example of a pirated version of Palatino which means that if this information is correct that the situation is messier than generally believed. The E and F have a midarm serif; there are serifs on y but not x; and the R is unpleasant. Which version of Palatino is this copying?]
Venture Script—the digital version (whether PostScript or OpenType) is missing several characters from the Linoﬁlm version: alternate d, g and y; ﬁnial swash e; and ligatures en, es, ff, qu and th. These can be seen on p. 129 of the paperback edition of About Alphabets (1970).
Virtuosa Classic Regular—the date given is 1948 but with Hermann Zapf and Akira Kobayashi as designers. There is no bold and no Greek (Frederika).
ITC Zapf Book STD—Light, Light Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Demi, Demi Italic, Heavy and Heavy Italic.
ITC Zapf Chancery STD—Light, Light Italic, Roman, Italic, Demi and Bold.
ITC Zapf Chancery STD—Multilingual Medium Italic; from Para Type [no date].
ITC Zapf Dingbats STD—but only 200 icons: 58 from set one, 70 from set two and 72 from set three.
Zapf Essentials—Arrows One, Arrows Two, Communication, Markers, Office and Ornaments
ITC Zapf International STD—Light, Light Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Demi, Demi Italic, Heavy and Heavy Italic.
Zapf Renaissance Antiqua—Light, Light Italic, Book, Caps Book, Book Italic, Caps Book Italic, Bold, Swashed [sic] Light Italic and Swashed [sic] Book Italic
SG Zapf Renaissance Antiqua No. 2 SB—Light Italic, Light Italic Swash, Book, Book SC, Book Italic, Book Italic Swashed [sic], Italic SC, Bold
Zapﬁno [no Linotype preﬁx] (1998)—One, Two, Three, Four, Ligatures and Ornaments.
Zapﬁno Extra (2003)—One, Two, Three, Four, Alternate, Small Caps, Ligatures, Forte One, Forte Alternate, Cyrillic One and Ornaments.
Zapﬁno Extra X (2003)—One, Two, Three, Four, Alternate, Small Caps, Ligatures, Forte One, Forte Alternate, Cyrillic One and Ornaments.
CLONES OF SOME ZAPF TYPEFACES
This list of copies (clones, pirated versions, rip-offs, etc.) of three of Hermann Zapf’s most popular typefaces relies heavily on sanskritweb.net, an opinionated and contentious site that is full of useful information; on an online article “The Palatino FAQ” revision 1.0 by John Butler (1998); and on Frank Romano, Professor Emeritus in the School of Print Media, Rochester Institute of Technology and probably the foremost expert on the phototype era. It has been supplemented by an examination of issues of Printing News from 1968 and 1976, U&lc from 1974 to 1977, and Type World from 1979 to 1987; the books and type specimens listed below; and information and material from Mark Simonson, Bill Davis and Steve Kennedy.
The list focuses only on copies of Melior, Optima and Palatino, the three most widely imitated designs of Zapf’s. It is far from complete and its accuracy is not wholly guaranteed. I have done my best to corroborate sources but this is a complicated area, full of strident allegations, brazen countercharges and shifty defenses. Dates are hard to come by and information on companies is even more slippery, which is astonishing for events that happened within the past forty years.
The Adobe Type Catalog
(Mountain View, California: Adobe Systems, 1991)
‘CRS’ One Line Specimen Book
(Niles, Illinois: Alphatype, c.1983)
“CRS Master Font & Type Book Order Form” October 15, 1983 typescript inserted
Berthold Fototypes E2 Body Types
(Berlin: H. Berthold GmbH, 1980)
(New York: Cardinal Typographers, 1987)
The Encyclopedia of Phototype Styles
(Chicago: Castcraft Industries, 1978)
Centennial’s Type Identiﬁer
(Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Centennial Graphics, Inc., 1986)
The Type Book
(Wilmington, Massachusetts: Compugraphic, 1987)
[see the unpaginated Typeface Analogue at the back]
An Alphabetical Showing of Available Type Faces for the Quadritek
Rochester, NY: Itek Graphic Products, c.1970
[this date provided by the library at Columbia University is wrong; it should be c.1980]
A Primer of Typeface Identiﬁcation
A.S. Lawson and Archie Provan and Frank J. Romano
(Arlington, Virginia: National Composition Association, 1976)
Monotype Typeface Library 90.4: Digital Typefaces / Digital Schriften / Caractères Digitalisés
(Redhill, Surrey, England: The Monotype Corporation, 1990)
Scangraphic Digital Type Collection [vol. 3]
(Hamburg: Scangraphic Dr. Böger GmbH, 1988)
includes Body Types A–Z edition 2 supplement and Body Text G–Z vol. 2 [dated February 1985]
“Typeface Thesaurus” in Type World (February 20, 1981), pp. 12–13
[Frank Romano, the compiler, says the “Typeface Thesaurus” was the ﬁrst list of alternate names for typefaces and that it was the basis for the one published by Centennial Graphics (see above). Most online information about pirated typefaces can be traced back to this document.]
Type Design Developments 1970 to 1985
(Arlington, Virginia: National Composition Association, 1985)
[this consists of articles from Litho Week by Wallis]
Typomania: Selected Essays on Typesetting and Related Subjects
(London: Lund Humphries Publishers, Ltd., 1994)
Here are some random bits of information gathered in the course of trying to compile this list.
• Zapf sought out freelance type design assignments in the 1960s.
“I am a typographic consultant for Mergenthaler and all my faces have been produced exclusively by them or their sister ﬁrms Stempel and Linotype GmbH. Therefore I wanted to inform Mike Parker about my decision to do more work in future as a free lance designer for other companies too. In general there will be no change of my status to the MLCo, but you will understand, I want not to have any problems in the future in doing special orders for other ﬁrms. I would like if you inform Mr. Grieco [of RCA] about my situation and about the delay of my answer.” Hermann Zapf to Robert Leslie 16 July 1966
Zapf was interested in the new electronic typesetting developments by companies such as RCA, which claimed to have developed the “First Commercial Electronic Composition System” [Videocomp] in 1962. (L.W. Wallis says the Videocomp was introduced in 1965.) Doc Leslie (1885–1987), the head of The Typophiles and co-founder of The Composing Room (a typesetting service), was one of the most connected individuals in the graphic design world from the early 1930s until his death. Did he succeed in getting Zapf and RCA together? Is the Optima used in their brochure RCA Graphic 70 (“Electronics—A New Force in the Graphic Arts”) [n.d. but 1966], promoting the Videocomp 70/820 and RCA ColorScan II scanner, a pirated version?
• Frank Romano says that Compugraphic was the ﬁrst company (1969) to copy Optima and Palatino. The issue of piracy became heated after Compugraphic drastically lowered the cost of photocomposition machines in 1968. Romano says, “They had PhotoLettering blow up Lino faces and then cut rubyliths for artwork.” Issues of U&lc devoted to type piracy rail against the practice of making “contact prints” to copy phototype designs. This was allegedly Storch’s method (see below).
• Lawrence Wallis, in discussing Comenius in Type Design Developments 1970 to 1985 noted that “Nowadays a respectable type library appears incomplete without an exclusive design from the ubiquitous Hermann Zapf.” (p. 34) Berthold had licensed Aldus, Melior, Optima, Palatino, ITC Zapf Chancery and ITC Zapf International. In his comments on type piracy he focuses on Helvetica and makes no mention of copies of Zapf’s typefaces (pp. 91 and 98). Wallis’ list of the most “dominant” serif faces since 1950 leaves out Palatino, but includes ITC Souvenir!
• In his essay “Typocorrosion” (originally published in MacPublishing, vol. 1, no. 4  and reprinted in Typomania) Wallis complains about type chaos created by the proliferation of “look-alike” type names. His essay focuses not on Palatino but on Optima. He rails against “…incompetent copying, plagiarizing from poor originals, distortion of characters for artificial and illusory technical considerations, and the need of uninitiated suppliers to accumulate a collection of designs hurriedly and uncaringly.” Expedience, not cost-cutting, is responsible for the this state of affairs in his view.
Wallis’ history of legitimate Optima versions (p. 104) lists these technical milestones:
1975 photo font
[This is a curious date. Various weights of Optima (and Optima Greek) are listed in Zapf’s books as having been adopted for ﬁlm before 1975, but not Optima regular. In fact, a ﬁlm version of it does not appear. But I doubt that it took until 1975 to make one.]
1978 run-length digital font
1979 digital outline font (CRT)
1985 digital laser font
1987 Adobe version (which he considered inferior)
• A Primer of Typeface Identiﬁcation (1976) notes the “wide proliferation of type styles ‘similar to’popular faces”, but curiously enough does not single out any clones for Palatino or Optima. Instead it discusses 26 other typefaces, among them Melior. However, the Typeface Nomenclature Comparison Chart does include 9 clones for Optima and 6 for Palatino—and 7 for Melior. This list predates Romano’s but is not as comprehensive.
• One of the earliest type pirates was Castcraft Industries in Chicago which ﬁrst copied metal type before moving on to phototype and later, under the name Optifonts, digital type. In their 1978 Encyclopedia of Phototype Styles they included not only Optima and Melior but clones called Optima Agency and Melior Classic respectively. The Optima Agency family included such monstrosities as outline, shadow and drop shadow versions while Melior Classic included flair (swashes!), outline and drop shadow versions. Oddly enough, there are no Palatino clones in the catalogue.
• The key American court case re: copyright of typefaces is Mergenthaler Linotype v. Storch Enterprises (Illinois Appellate Court, First District, 4th Division; opinion ﬁled 30 November 1978). The issue of piracy, however, was not settled. Mergenthaler Linotype lost the case on the grounds of forum non conviens(that the place where the lawsuit was ﬁled was the wrong venue). Storch, founded in 1965, was considered to be the most blatant typeface “pirate”. They consistently ran advertisements in Type World, under the banner of “America’s First Film Font Foundry, offering typefaces for VIP machines at lower prices than those charged by Mergenthaler and with no “broken characters, fuzzy images, smudges in the emulsion or uffo’s (unidentiﬁed font fly-offs)”. (Type World, May 1979) Its fonts cost $40 each for a set of 15 (lower prices for greater quantities) vs. $400 for fonts from Mergenthaler. Storch’s advertisements labeled their typefaces “as similar to” better known ones such as Aldus, Optima and Palatino. (See for example Type World, November 1980.) In the November 20, 1981 issue of Type World, Storch claimed to have bridged the “Great Type Gap” between Mergenthaler and Compugraphic by offering “authentic” filmstrips for Compugraphic users that will ﬁx the problem of having to use “look-alike alphabets”. They began by offering Times Roman and Helvetica—not Palatino or Optima. It ﬁrst offered the latter to Compugraphic users in 1983.
• The success of the ITC licensing strategy is evident in the fact that few of the photocomposition companies accused of type piracy copied its fonts. An exception is Itek which identiﬁed its ZF typeface as similar to ITC Zapf Book. In 1982 the list of ITC subscribers consisted of AM International, Inc., Varityper Division; Adobe Systems Inc.; Alphatype Corp.; Artype, Inc.; Autologic, Inc.; H. Berthold AG; Dr. Böger Photosatz GmbH; Compugraphic Corp.; Digital Visions, Inc.; Filmotype; Harris Corp. / Harris Composition Systems Divsion; Hell; Information International; Itek Composition Systems Division; Letraset International Ltd.; Mergenthaler Linotype; Metagraphics, Division of Intran Corp.; Technographics / Film Fonts; and VGC (Visual Graphics Corporation). Although a number of companies accused of selling pirated typefaces had gone out of business by this time, this list includes many others (e.g. AM International and Compugraphic).
• The detail from the “CRS Master Font & Type Book Order Form” dated October 15, 1983 (above) is a reminder that Zapf’s typefaces were not the only ones being pirated during the phototype era. Oliver is Antique Olive by Roger Excoffon and Percepta is Perpetua by Eric Gill.
• Pulsar Graphics offered type users a “Companion Type Style Directory” (Type World, 27 January 1984) which consisted of a CG (Compugraphic) type chart linking their faces to those from Mergenthaler and ITC.
Ballardvale (Compugraphic, 1980)—[regular], Italic, Bold, Bold Italic. P
[Romano: “Ballardvale was a Compugraphic font named for the town their new building was in…. It was a re-do of their first version called Mallard in 1969.” Contrary to what online lists of Zapf’s pirated fonts say, it was not an Autologic typeface.]
Hanover (AM International/Varityper, 1978)—later issued by Tegra. P, D
[Romano: “Tegra was a Mass. company that later acquired Varityper. Hanover was a Varityper font named for E. Hanover, NJ.]
Mallard (Compugraphic, 1969) P
Mallard II (Compugraphic, 1978) P
[Romano: “Mallard and Mallard II (Compugraphic)—First version of Melior 1969; Mallard II in 1978. Later they did Ballardvale and expunged this font. Compugraphic pushed out fonts in 1968–1972 and realized how bad they were. Many were re-done in 1978–1982. After that, they focused on ITC and original fonts.”]
Marseille Serial (SoftMaker, 2010?)—Light, [Regular] Medium, Bold, XBold; no italics. D
Matrix (Scangraphic, 1983) P
ME (Itek Graphic Products, c. 1979) P
[Romano: “ME (Itek)—Itek introduced the Quadritek in 1977 and most of Zapf’s fonts were done by 1979. They used the first two letters of the original font name so this is Melior.”]
Medallion (Harris, before 1976) P
Melanie (Tilde, n.d.)—according to the ParaType list of “synonyms”. Simonson says Tilde was afﬁliated with Bitstream. D
Melier (before 1986)—no information available. P
Melio Star (Star Parts Co., before 1976)—no details available. P
CG Melliza (Compugraphic, before 1981)—Italic, Bold, Bold Italic. P
Metrion (ATF, 1967 phototype)—this is the earliest conﬁrmed knock-off of a Zapf typeface. P
Millo (before 1986)—no details available. P
Orator (IBM, 1969)—IBM Composer “golfball” version. S
Palm Beach (before 1986)—no details available. P
Uranus (Alphatype, 1970)—not to be confused with the Uranus that is a knock-off of Univers. P
Venture (Graphic Systems Inc., before 1976)—Graphic Systems Inc. was a successor to a combination of Singer, Dymo and Photon. P
Vermillion (before 1986)—no details available. P
Zapf Elliptical 721 (Bitstream, before 1989)—[Regular], Italic, Bold, Bold Italic; rumored to have been done with Zapf’s cooperation. The Cyrillic version was developed by Natalya Vasilyeva and licensed by ParaType in 2002. D
Athena (Autologic Inc.)—according to ParaType; not veriﬁed. P
Chelmsford (Compugraphic, 1980) P
[Romano: “The second wave of Zapf fonts were named for Massachusetts cities and towns. This was Optima.”]
URW Classico (URW, 1996)—available with URW Font package from Ghostscript. D
Eterna (SWFTE International, Ltd., 1986)—[Regular], Italic, Bold, Bold Italic. SWFTE begun by David H. Goodman; acquired 1995 by Expert Software, Inc. following successful lawsuit by Adobe et al charging copyright infringement; now a software game manufacturer. D
Exyle (Intermicro)—according to ParaType; not veriﬁed. D
Musica (Alphatype)—[not to be confused with ITC Musica]; according to ParaType; not veriﬁed. P
October (Scangraphic, 1983) P
CG Omega (Compugraphic, before 1985)—[Regular], Italic, Medium, Medium Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Black, Black Italic. P
MgOpen Cosmetica (available with open source license based on Bitstream Vera Open Source Initiative)—TT free fonts for viewing Greek texts; comes with Ubuntu 7.04 (2007) but apparently released 2006. Epigraﬁca (Magenta Ltd., 2011) is “an extended and improved version” of MgOpen Cosmetica—Regular, Bold, Oblique, Bold Oblique. D
OP (Itek Graphic Products, 1979). P
Opium New (Type Market)—according to ParaType; not veriﬁed. D
Optane (WSI [Weatherly Systems Inc.] Fonts collection) D
[Weatherly Systems Inc.: “Our fonts are ultra-high quality, made from clean art, high-resolution scans and fresh code, and include international (accented/european [sic]) characters, hinting, kerning and compositing for crispness and speed for both screen display and printing. We don’t sell directly to end users, but rather provide fonts to software publishers who sell our fonts under their own labels.”; not selling fonts since 2003]
[Weatherly Systems Inc.: “A note about typefaces: In the USA, typeface SHAPES are NOT protected by copyright, but the code that produces them (the digital font) certainly is.
WSI’s fonts are not freeware, but are commercial software protected by copyright.” Can be bought from fonts.com (by Monotype Imaging); name copyrighted 1992; free download; True Type—Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic]
Opti Star (Star Parts Co., before 1976) P
Optimal (Intermicro)—according to ParaType; not veriﬁed. D
Optimale [from fontyukle.net site]—Bold. The fontyukle.net website gathers up fonts from users and then offers them for free to others. D
Optimist (Autologic Inc.)—Normal, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Extended Bold Italic; came with Serif FontPack associated with PagePlus desktop publishing software (Arts & Letters Corp., 1995). However, the sample online looks like ITC Stone Sans not Optima; ParaType lists it, but does it belong? D
Opulent (Rubicon Computer Labs Inc., 1994)—“Like Optima”; [Regular], Italic. D
[“During the period 1991 to 1998 Rubicon produced a number of font clones. There were many small companies doing this but we survived because our font clones were digitised accurately at high resolution and were better quality than most.¶ In the USA typefaces and bitmapped fonts are not copyrightable but scalable fonts are. Anyone with sufficient time and skill can make an original representation of a typeface as a scalable font and copyright it. For information on font copyright laws in the USA and elsewhere refer to the links at the left or consult a lawyer.… ¶ At the end of 1998 we decided it was no longer beneﬁcial to produce font clones. Instead, we decided to maintain and improving [sic] our existing fonts, concentrating on adding better hinting and producing better TrueType versions.”]
Opus (Tilde)—according to ParaType; available at fontsite.com (plain, italic, bold, bold italic, plain small caps, bold small caps); OPTIOpus found but is it same font? D
Oracle (Compugraphic, 1969)—not the same as the WSI font called Oracle. P
Oracle II (Compugraphic, 1980) P
[Romano: “Oracle and Oracle II—This was the ﬁrst version of Optima at Compugraphic. Oracle in 1969 and II version in 1980 when they re-did the library. Later replaced by Chelmsford.”]
Orleans (before 1986)—no details available. P
Ottawa (Corel, 1992?)—Regular, Bold; TrueType font v.3 included in CorelDraw; available as a free download. D
Roma (before 1986)—no details available. P
Stellara (before 1986)—no details available. P
Theme (Thema?) (IBM, 1968)—for IBM Composer “golfball”. S
Ursa (before 1986)—no details available. P
Variant (2Alex)—according to ParaType; not veriﬁed. D
Zapf Humanist 601 (Bitstream, before 1989)—[Regular], Italic, Demi, Demi Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Ultra, Ultra Italic; Zapf is credited with the design on MyFonts. D
Zenith (before 1986)—no details available. P
Andover (Compugraphic, 1969) P
Andover II (Compugraphic, 1980) P
[The Type Book (see above) from Compugraphic (1985) credits these faces to Alphatype and Varityper. Did they distance themselves from their earlier copy of Palatino and try to shift the blame to other companies that may have taken on those designs?]
Atlas (Castcraft OPTI, 1992) D
Book Antiqua (Monotype / Microsoft)—bundled with Microsoft Ofﬁce. D
Calmont (Brendel)—not veriﬁed. D
Compano (International Information Inc.)—not veriﬁed. P
Criteria OldStyle SSi (Southern Software, Inc., 1992)—[no regular], Bold, Normal (italic), Caps (small caps), Bold Italic; Criteria SSi (without Oldstyle) has Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic; both are TrueType fonts. D
Elegante (Harris)—not veriﬁed. P
Katzen Display (Southern Software, Inc., 1992)—Palatino Black; TrueType. D
Malibu/2 (Autologic Inc.)—not veriﬁed. P
Marathon (B & P Graphics Ltd., 1993)—ExtraBold Regular, Xlight, Regular only; company appears to be an English sign industry supplier in bankruptcy as of 2012. Not to be confused with Marathon by Rudolf Koch. D
PA 10 (Itek Graphic Products, 1979) P
Tex Gyre Pagella (GUST, 2011)—a remake and extension of PostScript fonts distributed by Ghostscript 4.0; supports TeX. D
[“TeX Gyre Pagella is based on the URW Palladio L kindly released by URW++ Design and Development Inc. under GFL (independently of the GPL release accompanying Ghostscript).”; “(Please note that with the release of this family the QuasiPalatino fonts became obsolete.)”]
PT Padua—not veriﬁed.
Pala Star (Star Parts Co., before 1976)—no details available. P
CG Palacio (Compugraphic, 1969)—[Regular], Italic, Bold, Bold Italic; originally Palacio without the CG preﬁx; replaced in 1980 by Andover. P
[“…Compugraphic offers customers the Typographers Edition, a classic collection of typefaces most frequently speciﬁed in the graphic arts industry. Our type designers have taken great care to exactly reproduce each nuance and design trail on a character-by-character basis.”; such fonts are marked by a CG preﬁx]
Paladium (Compugraphic) P
Paladin (before 1986)—no details available. P
Palangraphic—Normal, Normal Italic, Bold, Bold Italic
Palatia (Broderbund)—Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic; part of Print Shop Deluxe III. D
Palateno Impact (Alphabet Innovations, c.1970)—a version of Palatino Bold according to Simonson. P
QTPalatine (Qualitype Software, 1992)—Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic; TrueType. D
Palatini—no details available.
Palatino Agency (TypeFilms)—no details available. P
Palatino SuperSpecial (TypeFilms)—not details available. P
Palatial (Tilde)—according to ParaType. D
Palation Werk (Berthold)—no details available. P
Palazzo (SoftMaker GmbH)—Werk [italic], Smc [small caps], Original [regular], Original Bold; digitized from large Stempel versions of Palatino; offered on Megafont XXL CD.
Photo Palamino [not Palamino] (KeyFonts from SoftKey Software Products Inc.)—Regular; TrueType. D
Skt Palermo (Serif FontPack TM Serif, Inc., 1992 W.S.I.—Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic; TrueType. D
Palermo (Brendel Informatik Cologne FRG, 1994)—Light, Regular, DemiBold, Bold, SF Bold Italic Bold, SF Italic, Antique XBold Regular, Random XBold Regular. D
Serial Palermo (SoftMaker Software GmbH 2002)—Light Regular, Regular, Medium Regular, Bold, DB.Bold, ExtraBold, ExtraBold Regular; [the names are bizarre; are these clones of clones?]. D
Palino—Palino DB Werk Italic [with no kerning!], Palino DB Regular, Palino Caps DB Normal, Palino DB Normal
Palladia (Image Club Graphics, Inc., 1992)—Regular, Bold, Italic, Bold Italic. D
URW Palladio (URW, 1996)—sanctioned by Zapf according to Butler. D
[Ghostview: “According to URW, he [Zapf] completely corrected their digitization of Palladio from the beginning as well. On the other hand, several years since, URW has made Palladio (or fonts based on it) freely available to Ghostscript users, and Zapf was not consulted on this.”]
Palmer (Attitude, Inc.)—no details available. D
PalmSprings (Corel, 1992)—[Regular], Italic, Bold, Bold Italic; TrueType. D
Palomar (Digital Systems Research, 1994)—no details available. D
Palton (Digital Typeface Corp., 1991)—[Regular], Italic, Bold, Bold Italic; TrueType. D
Paltus Antiqua (URW)—conﬁrmed by Bill Davis, but without details. D
Parlament (Mannesmann Scangraphic, 1983)—not listed in the Body Types A–Z edition 2 supplement to Scangraphic Digital Type Collection (1988). P
Pathway (Castcraft)—no details available. P
Patina (Alphatype)—no details available. P
Paxim (Linotype)—Romano says this is a clone of Palatino but why would Linotype make it if they own the rights to the original?
Pontiac (Wang, 1970)—Romano says the design was originally from GSI (but made for Singer) and later sold to Wang. P
Pigmalion (AzZet)—according to ParaType; not veriﬁed. D
Plinius (Brendel Informatik GmbH, 1994)—Regular; TrueType. D
Praxis (Mannesmann Scangraphic)—not listed in the Body Types A–Z edition 2 supplement to Scangraphic Digital Type Collection (1988). Not to be confused with Praxis by Gerard Unger. P
PT (before 1986)—no details available. P
Rico (Digifonts)—no details available. D
Zapf Calligraphic 801 (Bitstream, before 1989)—[Regular], Italic, Bold, Bold Italic; but with a different slope, and other subtle changes, than the digital Linotype version or Pro version; bundled with CorelDRAW versions 4, 5, 6 and 7; also a TrueType version. Rumored to have been worked on by Zapf. D
Z-Antiqua (Monotype, 1990)—redigitized as Book Antiqua; bundled with Microsoft Office c.1993. Ironically, Z-Antiqua was the working name for Hunt Roman. D
A question that needs to be answered is what are the original sources for the second wave of pirated Zapf typefaces in the digital era? Which ones are derived from phototype clones? Here is a year-by-year breakdown of the Melior/Optima/Palatino clones. Those without dates are not included.
Opti Star [Optima]
Pala Star [Palatino]
Mallard II [Melior]
Andover II [Palatino]
Oracle II [Optima]
CG Omega [Optima]
Palm Beach [Melior]
Zapf Calligraphic 801 [Palatino]
Zapf Elliptical 721 [Melior]
Zapf Humanist 601 [Optima]
Book Antiqua [Palatino]
Criteria Oldstyle SSI [Palatino]
Katzen Display [Palatino]
Skt Palermo [Palatino]
Palm Springs [Palatino]
URW Classico [Optima]
URW Palladio [Palatino]
Serial Palermo [Palatino]
MgOpen Cosmetica [Optima]
Marseille Serial [Melior]
Tex Gyre Pagella [Palatino]
A Concise Chronology of Typesetting Developments, 1886–1986
(London: The Wynken de Worde Society and Lund Humphries, 1988)
Wallis’ slim book is the best source of information (short of slogging through individual issues of Type World and other trade publications) to learn about the still-poorly documented history of photocomposition. Here are some key dates (from 1960 to 1990) of the various players in the industry taken from Wallis as well as from Type World et al.
c.1959 Alphatype founded
1960 Compugraphic founded
c.1960 Addressograph-Multigraph/Varityper founded
1960 ﬁrst Alphatype machine
1965 Hell Digiset
1967 Varityper Headliner / AM 725
1967 Fairchild PU2000 and PU8000
1967 Berthold Diatronic
1967 IBM 2680
1968 Harris [Intertype] Fototronic 1200
1968 Compugraphic CG2961, CG4961 and CG7200
1968 Compugraphic CG2961 and CG4961 cheap
1969 Singer Justotext 70
1970 Harris Fototronic TxT
1970 Star Parts Co. Compstar 150
1970 type division created at Compugraphic
1971 Dymo acquires Star Parts
1971 Autologic founded
1971 CG Compwriter
1971 CompWriter allowed direct keyboard entry
1971 AM 747
1971 Autologic APS 4
1971 III [Information International Inc.] took over RCA Videocomp
1972 Autologic becomes a subsidiary of Volt Information Sciences, Inc.
1972 Fototronic 600
1972 MGD MetroSet successfully applied storage of digital fonts in outline form [CRT]
1972 MGD Metroset
1972 Bobst Eurocat
1973 Compugraphic Videosetter
1974 A-M Compuset
1975 Dymo Graphic Systems created
1975 MGD Graphics Systems Group part of Rockwell International
1976 new Alphacomp
1976 Quadritek 1200
1977 DLC-1000 Compositor from Dymo
1977 Compugraphic Editwriter
1977 Alphatype CRS
1977 Bobst begins photocomposition business
1978 Linotron 202
1978 MGD leaves the business
1978 AM Comp/Edit 5810
1979 III buys MGD
1979 Itek buys Dymo
1980 AKI (an Atex company) sells photocomposition
1980 Berthold and Alphatype merge (but see also 1981 below)
1980 Mycro-Tek, Inc. founded
1980 Foto Star International sells photocomposition
1981 Berthold buys Alphatype
1981 Autologic buys Bobst
1981 Bitstream founded
1981 Böger released Scantext 1000
1981 Volt buys Bobst
1981 Xerox (Xerox Printing Systems Division) licenses fonts from Mergenthaler including Optima, Melior and Palatino; digitized by Mergenthaler
1983 Digitek machine
1984 Tegra founded
1984 Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) licenses CG fonts for DEC LN01
1984 Qubix licenses Bitstream fonts
1984 Harris licenses CG fonts for CT7000 as supplement to own type library
1984 Xyvision licenses CG fonts for Xyvision Laser Printer
1984 Harris quit the business
1985 Compugraphic MCS 8800
1985 Apple and Linotype announce alliance
1986 Tegra licenses Bitstream fonts
1986 Scantext 2000
1986 Berthold sells Alphatype
1986 URW announces type library—including URW Grotesk and URW Antiqua
1986 Bitstream licenses fonts to Hewlett Packard (HP)
1986 Esselte buys ITC
1986 Adobe downloadable fonts available with Apple LaserWriter; there are 12 packages that include 15 ITC fonts (among them ITC Zapf Dingbats and ITC Zapf Chancery), Palatino and Optima
1987 Alphatype acquires Alphabet Innovations type library
1987 Linotype sold to Commerzbank
1987 Linotype distributes Adobe fonts; Adobe Type Library announced
1989 Agfa Compugraphic created